Three databases were searched from the earliest studies on those databases:

  1. PubMed
  2. MEDLINE
  3. EMBASE

The search was carried out using a strategy employing keywords or synonyms:

  1. Waterpipe
  2. Hookah, hooka
  3. Shisha, sheesha
  4. Goza
  5. narghileh, narghile
  6. arghileh, arghile
  7. narguila, narguilah
  8. hubble-bubble, hubbly-bubbly
  9. Bong

This knowledge should guide regulators on appropriate measures to curb this epidemic by implementing health warning labels on packages and in public places of use, banning of misleading information on contents and emissions, and limiting access to youth and minors.


This page provides links to websites with data, materials, news and articles, and other relevant information related to tobacco surveillance and reporting.

Framework Convention Alliance. The Alliance consists of nearly 500 organisations from over 100 countries. FCA works on the development, ratification and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The website gives access to numerous publications and materials, including policy papers, reports, factsheets, newsletters, and advocating tools.

WHO FCTC implementation database and updates from the parties. This web-based database contains the reports the FCTC Parties deliver every two years. The search options vary from individual Party to treaty articles and measures.

WHO´s tobacco webpage. WHO's website has a page dedicated to the topic of tobacco. The information presented on the website includes, inter alia, global reports on tobacco control situation and trends, publications, factsheets and bulletins, news, and links to relevant webpages of the WHO regional offices.

Global Tobacco Surveillance System. GTSS includes the collection of data through four surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS); Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS); Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GYTS focuses on youth aged 13-15 and collects information in schools. GSPS surveys teachers and administrators from the same schools that participate in the GYTS. GHPSS focuses on 3rd year students pursuing degrees in dentistry, medicine, nursing and pharmacy. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that monitors tobacco use among adults aged 15 years and older. GTSS includes over 20 tobacco data topics including, tobacco use, tobacco advertising, cessation, secondhand smoke, school policies, and perceptions of smoking behaviors

Presentations Given During the Third International Conference on Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Research