Studies have demonstrated that waterpipe Tobacco Smoking is very harmful!
Effects on The Cardiovascular System
Acute Cardiovascular Effects
- Increases Heart Rate (HR).
- Increases Blood Pressure (BP).
- Impaired Pulmonary Function (PF).
- Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).
Long-Term Cardiovascular Effects
- Ischemic Heart Disease or Heart Failure.
Effects on The Respiratory System
Acute Respiratory Effects
- Increased Respiratory Rate (RR).
- Carbon Monoxide Intoxication.
Signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may include:
- Dull headache.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Shortness of breath.
- Blurred vision.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Impaired Pulmonary Function (PF).
- Decreased Exercise Capacity.
Long-term Respiratory Effects
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
- Chronic Bronchitis.
- Chronic Emphysema\.
Association of WPS with Cancer
- Lung Cancer.
- Oesophageal Cancer.
- Gastric Cancer.
- Bladder Cancer.
Obstetrical and Perinatal Outcomes
- Low Birth Weight.
- Pulmonary Problems at Birth.
Periodontal and Oral Disease
- Periodontal disease.
- Larynx and Voice Changes.
- Lower bone density and increased fracture risk.
Other Health Outcomes
- Greater BMI and risk for obesity.
- Elevated Urine Microalbumin.
- Low Back Pain.
- Increased risk of Gastroesophageal Reflux.
- Hearing Loss.
- Hand Eczema.
- Acute Eosinophilic Pneumoni.
- Lower lip keratoacanthom and ulcerative colitis flare after discontinuing WPS.
- Lower overall health-related quality of life.
- Advisory note: waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions for regulators – 2nd edition
- Fact sheet: waterpipe tobacco smoking & health
- WHO’s work on tobacco product regulation
- Publications on tobacco product regulation
- Research paper: ‘Herbal’ but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafés where they are served
- Smoking & Tobacco Use
- Herbal Shisha & Tobacco Free Hookah
- American Lung Association. An Emerging Deadly Trend: Waterpipe Tobacco Use. [PDF–222 KB] Washington: American Lung Association, 2007 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- American Lung Association. http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/tobacco-control-advocacy/reports-resources/cessation-economic-benefits/reports/hookah-policy-brief.pdf. [PDF–1.34 MB] Smokefree Communities Project, 2011 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The Effects of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking on Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;39:834–57 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- Cobb CO, Ward KD, Maziak W, Shihadeh AL, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: An Emerging Health Crisis in the United States . American Journal of Health Behavior 2010;34(3):275–85 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General . Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) . [last updated 2013 April 25; accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- El-Hakim Ibrahim E, Uthman Mirghani AE. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Keratoacanthoma of the Lower Lips Associated with “Goza” and “Shisha” Smoking. International Journal of Dermatology 1999;38:108–10 [cited 2015 Sep 14]
- Nuwayhid, I, Yamout, B., Ghassan, and Kambria, M. Narghile (Hubble-Bubble) Smoking, Low Birth Weight and Other Pregnancy Outcomes . American Journal of Epidemiology 1998;148:375–83 [accessed 2015 Sep 14]
- Cobb CO, Vansickel AR, Blank MD, Jentink K, Travers MJ, Eissenberg T. Indoor Air Quality in Virginia Waterpipe Cafés. Tobacco Control 2012 Mar 24 doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050350 [cited 2015 Sep 14]
- Shihadeh A, Salman R, Eissenberg T. Does Switching to a Tobacco-Free Waterpipe Product Reduce Toxicant Intake? A Crossover Study Comparing CO, NO, PAH, Volatile Aldehydes, Tar and Nicotine Yields . Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012;50(5):1494–8 [accessed 2015 Sep 14].
- Blank MD, Cobb CO, Kilgalen B, Austin J, Weaver MF, Shihadeh A, Eissenberg T. Acute Effects of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Control Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011;116(1–3):102–9 [cited 2015 Sep 14]