B22 - Details concerning data on exposure to tobacco smoke

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Afghanistan 78.3% of non-smokers are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in places such as public transportation, offices and marketplaces, where others smoke. 78.3% of non-smokers are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in places such as public transportation, offices and marketplaces, where others smoke. Answer not provided WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Albania Report not provided Report not provided Answer not provided WHO European Region
Algeria - Exposition à la maison: 30.0 % - Exposition dans les lieux publics : 34.3 % Exposition à la maison : 27,5% - dans les lieux publics : 61,3% 61,3 % des enquêtes déclarent qu’elles sont exposées au tabagisme passif dans les lieux publics clos (bureau, café, restaurants, transports, centres commerciaux). -dans les lieux publics extérieurs : 62,1% 62,1 % des enquêtes déclarent qu’elles sont exposées au tabagisme passif dans les lieux publics extérieurs (jardin, stade, parcs, plages). - Exposition par sexe : - 22 7 % des hommes sont exposés à la maison contre 25 9 % pour les femmes. - 74 9 % des femmes déclarent être exposées dans les lieux publics au tabagisme passif (transports administrations etc) contre 77 3 % pour les hommes. -Exposition à la maison : 24 1 % - Exposition dans les lieux publics : 75 9 % WHO African Region
Angola Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Antigua and Barbuda Report not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Armenia Report not provided Report not provided Schoolchildren (13-15 years old) exposure to tobacco smoke in home 70.6% (69.2% boys and 71.6% girls). 78.3% (80.7 % boys and 76.4 girls) are esposed to smoke in public places WHO European Region
Australia See attached in B24 As part of the National Health Survey in 2011-12, the Biomedical Results for Chronic Disease included a test for cotinine as an objective measure of smoking status. The body produces cotinine in the process of breaking down, or metabolising, nicotine from tobacco smoke. Levels of cotinine are generally proportionate to the amount of tobacco exposure a person receives through smoking, or in some cases, through exposure to second hand smoke. However, cotinine levels only remain elevated for around 20 hours after exposure to tobacco smoke; therefore it can only provide a measure of short-term exposure. Overall, 87.0% of current smokers aged 18 years and over had exposure to tobacco smoke, compared with only 5.7% of those who were ex-smokers and 0.3% of those who had never smoked. As part of the National Health Survey in 2011-12. the Biomedical Results for Chronic Disease included a test for cotinine as an objective measure of smoking status. The body produces cotinine in the process of breaking down. or metabolising. nicotine from tobacco smoke. Levels of cotinine are generally proportionate to the amount of tobacco exposure a person receives through smoking. or in some cases. through exposure to second hand smoke. However. cotinine levels only remain elevated for around 20 hours after exposure to tobacco smoke; therefore it can only provide a measure of short-term exposure. Overall. 87.0% of current smokers aged 18 years and over had exposure to tobacco smoke. compared with only 5.7% of those who were ex-smokers and 0.3% of those who had never smoked. WHO Western Pacific Region
Austria Exposure at home (13 %; men 13 %, women 13 %), in the workplace (8 %; men 10 %, women 7 %) Exposure to tobacco smoke in general (28 %; men 34 %, women 23 %), Exposure to tobacco smoke at least one hour per day (15 %; men 17 %, women 13 %) Exposure at home (13 %), in the workplace (8 %) In 2006-2007 9.9% of the Austrian population aged 15+ and being non-smokers or occasional Smokers (= not smoking every day) were exposed to tobacco smoke at home and 24.3 % of the working population were exposed to tobacco smoke at their workplace (11.9 % less than 1 hour/day 7.5 % from 1 to 5 hours/day and 4.9 % more than 5 hours/day). Tobacco smoke exposure at home as well as at the workplace was highest among 15-30 year old persons (15.9 % at home and 30.8 % at the workplace). Men are more often exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace than women (27.5 % vs. 20.3 %); at home however women are more often exposed to tobacco smoke (10.2 % vs. 9.6 %). WHO European Region
Azerbaijan Among 18–69 years of population, 24.9% were exposed to second-hand smoke at home. The women more likely than men to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (26.5% vs 23.3%). The overall rate of exposed to second-hand smoke in home for both sexes was higher in the young age group (18-44) than older (45-69) (26.6% vs 22.1). Meanwhile, in the workplace only 18.3 from both sexes of respondents were exposed to second-hand smoke. As expected, men were more exposed than women (28.4% vs. 7.7% respectively), which can be explained by a higher share of employed people among the male respondents, especially in rural areas. Differences between age groups (18-44 and 45-69) for all respondents are not notable A significant decline in the trend of ETS at home among women (up to 35%) and men (up to 23%) , and in the trend of ETS at work among men (up to 50%) were observed since submission of the last report. Among 18 and older, the women more likely than men to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (40.2% vs. 30.2%). ETS exposure at work and public places are higher in men (55.0% and 76.2% respectively), which can be explained by a higher share of employed people among the male respondents and women traditionally less likely to visit public places, especially in rural areas. The 59.6% exposed to ETS either at home, work or public places with men being exposed more frequently than women (67.5% and 52.3% respectively). For both sexes the exposure is more likely to happen at public places than at home or work (59.2% vs. 35.6% and 34.9%). By age groups, ETS exposure tended to be greater in younger ages. Among 18 and older the women more likely than men to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (40.2% vs. 30.2%). ETS exposure at work and public places are higher in men (55.0% and 76.2% respectively) which can be explained by a higher share of employed people among the male respondents and women traditionally less likely to visit public places especially in rural areas. The 59.6% exposed to ETS either at home work or public places with men being exposed more frequently than women (67.5% and 52.3% respectively). For both sexes the exposure is more likely to happen at public places than at home or work (59.2% vs. 35.6% and 34.9%). By age groups ETS exposure tended to be greater in younger ages. WHO European Region
Bahamas Report not provided Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home ( 7.7%) and in the workplace (11.3%) Exposure at home: Male - 8.3% (CI: 4.0-12.7); Female - 7.1% (CI:0.0-16.5); Total: 7.7% (CI: 0.8-14.6) Exposure in the workplace: Male - 17.4 % (CI: 0.0-39.0); Female - 5.2% (CI: 0.0-11.4); Total 11.3% (CI: 0.0-26.2) (based on exposure on one or more days in the past 7 days) WHO Region of the Americas
Bahrain (Kingdom of) The study was conducted by using special PM2.5 monitoring instrument that measured the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM) in indoor air. Indoor Air monitoring was conducted for thirty minutes at every venue in a sample of hospitals, schools, public offices, transportation, and recreation venues. The study took place during July, 2010. A total of 18 venues were monitored using PM2.5. A brief summary of the findings from this study is presented here. In Manama, the study found an average PM2.5 level of 211 µg/m3 in venues with evidence of smoking, which is 15 times higher than indoor places where no smoking was observed. Study Findings Levels of PM2.5 in Indoor Places in Bahrain • PM2.5 levels were 15 times higher in venues where smoking was observed compared to venues with no smoking observed and nearly 8 times higher than outdoors. • Smoking was only observed in recreation venues. All other venues had signs prohibiting smoking and very low levels of PM2.5. • The average PM2.5 levels detected in recreation venues with smoking was 211 µg/m3. In only 30 minutes, visitors to these venues would be exposed to levels 8 times higher than what is acceptable for a whole day (25 µg/m3), defined by the World Health Organization.6 • There was no evidence of smoking in schools, hospitals, public offices or transportation venues included in this study. The study was conducted by using special PM2.5 monitoring instrument that measured the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM) in indoor air. Indoor Air monitoring was conducted for thirty minutes at every venue in a sample of hospitals, schools, public offices, transportation, and recreation venues. The study took place during July, 2010. A total of 18 venues were monitored using PM2.5. A brief summary of the findings from this study is presented here. In Manama, the study found an average PM2.5 level of 211 µg/m3 in venues with evidence of smoking, which is 15 times higher than indoor places where no smoking was observed. Study Findings Levels of PM2.5 in Indoor Places in Bahrain • PM2.5 levels were 15 times higher in venues where smoking was observed compared to venues with no smoking observed and nearly 8 times higher than outdoors. • Smoking was only observed in recreation venues. All other venues had signs prohibiting smoking and very low levels of PM2.5. • The average PM2.5 levels detected in recreation venues with smoking was 211 µg/m3. In only 30 minutes, visitors to these venues would be exposed to levels 8 times higher than what is acceptable for a whole day (25 µg/m3), defined by the World Health Organization.6 • There was no evidence of smoking in schools, hospitals, public offices or transportation venues included in this study. The study was conducted by using special PM2.5 monitoring instrument that measured the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM) in indoor air. Indoor Air monitoring was conducted for thirty minutes at every venue in a sample of hospitals schools public offices transportation and recreation venues. The study took place during July 2010. A total of 18 venues were monitored using PM2.5. A brief summary of the findings from this study is presented here. In Manama the study found an average PM2.5 level of 211 µg/m3 in venues with evidence of smoking which is 15 times higher than indoor places where no smoking was observed. Study Findings Levels of PM2.5 in Indoor Places in Bahrain PM2.5 levels were 15 times higher in venues where smoking was observed compared to venues with no smoking observed and nearly 8 times higher than outdoors. Smoking was only observed in recreation venues. All other venues had signs prohibiting smoking and very low levels of PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels detected in recreation venues with smoking was 211 µg/m3. In only 30 minutes visitors to these venues would be exposed to levels 8 times higher than what is acceptable for a whole day (25 µg/m3) defined by the World Health Organization.6 There was no evidence of smoking in schools hospitals public offices or transportation venues included in this study. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Bangladesh 45% in public places. Males (69.4%) were more exposed than females (20.8%). 63.0% in workplace, 26.3% on public transport 45% in public places. Males (69.4%) were more exposed than females (20.8%). 63.0% in workplace, 26.3% on public transport 63.0% in workplace 26.3% on public transport WHO South-East Asia Region
Barbados Answer not provided for young people 13-15: 19.1% exposed at home 33.2 exposed inside enclosed public places Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Belarus Каждый пятый респондент за последние 30 дней подвергся воздействию вторичного табачного дыма в домашних условиях за последние 30 дней. Доля таких пассивных курильщиков составляет 18,8% (мужчин – 18,9%, женщин – 18,8%). Существенных различий по возрасту пассивных курильщиков в домашних условиях также нет.Каждый пятый респондент за последние 30 дней подвергался воздействию вторичного табачного дыма на рабочем месте. Доля пассивных курильщиков на работе составляет 14,9% (мужчины – 22,5%, женщины – 8,5%) Согласно полученным данным все еще значительная часть населения подвержена пассивному курению, более половине опрошенных приходится находиться рядом с курящими в различных местах (дома, в гостях, на работе и т.д.), тем самым, выступая в роли пассивного курильщика (таблица 2.8.9). Наиболее часто приходиться сталкиваться с пассивным курением на остановках общественного транспорта (22,8%). За исследуемый период 2010-2015 гг. сохраняется положительная тенденция снижения доли тех, кто подвергается пассивному курению «часто» и увеличение доли тех, кто подвергается пассивному курению «редко» и «никогда». Так, доля тех, кому приходиться часто находиться рядом с курящими дома снизилась на 13,5%; в гостях, у друзей – на 19,9%; на работе/учебе – 22,6%; на остановках общественного транспорта – на 17,2%; в парках, скверах – на 16,6%; в кафе, барах – на 13,5%. Полученные данные свидетельствуют об эффективности мер по ограничению курения в общественных местах и необходимости дальнейшей работы в данном направлении. '' (in% of respondents 2010 - 2012. Yes often Yes sometimes Yes rarely No never 2010 2012 2010 2012 2010 2012 2010 2012 Housing 28.3 20.5 20.0 17.2 12.1 15.7 34.4 41.6 Visiting friends acquaintances 32.2 19.0 34.8 34.1 22.6 30.4 5.0 11.8 At work / school 39.4 24.5 24.8 26.4 12.9 18.2 16.3 23.9 At stops societies. Transport 40.0 36.4 32.6 34.5 14.8 17.7 7.1 7.6 In parks squares 30.8 25.3 31.1 33.8 17.9 22.6 11.7 12.7 In cafes bars etc. 28.6 24.1 25.4 28.7 15.7 18.7 20.5 21.0 WHO European Region
Belgium Lors de leur dernière visite, 4% des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un restaurant et 18 % des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un bar. Lors de leur dernière visite, 6% des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un restaurant et 23 % des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un bar. Sur le lieux de travail, 79 % des travailleurs ne sont jamais confrontés à la fumée, 12 % occasionnellement, 4% moins d’une heure par jour, 3% de 1 à 5 heures par jour et 2 % plus de 5 heures par jour. The indicator reflects the distribution of the population (aged 15 years and over) according to their level of daily exposure to tobacco smoke INDOORS (whether at home, at work or in transportation): 77% of women and 73% of men indicated they were never or almost never exposed to tobacco smoke. 17% women and 20% men are exposed to tobacco smoke less than 5 hours per day, while 6% women and 7% men are exposed to tobacco smoke more than 5 hours per day. As regard to age, the most exposed (more than 5 hours a day) are found in the groups 15-24 years (7,3%) and 55-64 years (9,7%). Lors de leur dernière visite 6% des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un restaurant et 23 % des personnes ont été exposées à la fumée dans un bar. Sur le lieux de travail 71 % des travailleurs ne sont jamais confrontés à la fumée 15 % occasionnellement 7% moins d’une heure par jour 4% de 1 à 5 heures par jour et 3 % plus de 5 heures par jour. WHO European Region
Belize Report not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Benin Hommes exposé à la maison 21.6% Femmes exposé à la maison 14.1% Hommes et Femmes exposé à la maison 17.5% Hommes exposé au travail 14.1% Femmes exposé au travail 8.4% Hommes et Femmes exposé au travail 10.2% Hommes exposé à la maison 21.6% Femmes exposé à la maison 14.1% Hommes et Femmes exposé à la maison 17.5% Hommes exposé au travail 14.1% Femmes exposé au travail 8.4% Hommes et Femmes exposé au travail 10.2% prévalence du tabagisme passif chez les élèves de 13-15 ans (29.2% WHO African Region
Bhutan 15.3% (16.3% boys, 14.4% girls) of youths were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. 46.6% (47.9% boys and 45.6% girls) were exposed to tobacco smoke at outdoor public places. 15.3% (16.3% boys, 14.4% girls) of youths were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. 46.6% (47.9% boys and 45.6% girls) were exposed to tobacco smoke at outdoor public places. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home: Overall 15.3% Boys (16.3) Girls (14.4 ) Exposure to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place: Overall % 42.8 Boys (43.0) Girls ( 42.7) Exposure to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place: Overall % 46.6 Boys (47.9) Girls ( 45.6 WHO South-East Asia Region
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) El 50,3% de jovenes entre 13 y 15 años, estuvieron expuestos al HTA en lugares públicos abiertos, de los cuales 54.3% eran mujeres y el 49.3% hombres. El 46.6% de los jovenes estuvieron expuestos al HTA en lugares públicos cerrados, de los cuales 50.5% fueron hombres y 49.2% mujeres. Report not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation BiH: Exposure to tobacco smoke in the adults (18-65) is 54,1% at home, 44,4% at work and 52.7% in public places. Republic of Srpska: Exposure to tobacco smoke at workplace is 53,6% (males - 60%, females 45,5%). Exposure at the public places is 87,7% (males 83.6%, females 76,4%). In this group of the public place exposure, the biggest number is in the 18 - 24 age group. At home, exposure to the tobacco smoke is 39,9% (male 37,9%, female 41,5%). Brcko District BiH: There are no data available. Adults ( 18-65) Exposure to ETS at home 54,1% Exposure at work 44,4 Exposure in the public places 52.7% More than half of adults in the Federation of B&H (54 1%) reported ETS exposure at home 44 4% ETS exposure at work and 52 7% reported ETS exposure in the public In Republika Srpska: at the workplace exposure to the tobacco smoke is 53.6% of adults (males - 60% females 45.5%). At the public places exposure to the tobacco smoke is 87.7% (males 83.6% females 76.4%). In this group of the public place exposure the biggest number is in the 18 - 24 age group. At home exposure to the tobacco smoke is 39.9% (male 37.9% female 41.5%) WHO European Region
Botswana At home and in the workplace which are regarded as private business places. Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Brazil Individuals (smokers and nonsmokers) of 18 or more exposed to secondhand smoke at least 1 time per month at home: Men: 18.8 (17.9 to 19.8) Women: 17.2 (16.4 to 18.0) Individuals (smokers and nonsmokers) of 18 or more exposed to secondhand smoke at work among those who work indoors / both: Men: 20.5 (19.2 to 21.9) Women: 12.1 (11.0 to 13.3) Individuals (smokers and nonsmokers) of 18 or more exposed to secondhand smoke at least 1 time per month at home: Men: 18.8 (17.9 to 19.8) Women: 17.2 (16.4 to 18.0) Individuals (smokers and nonsmokers) of 18 or more exposed to secondhand smoke at work among those who work indoors / both: Men: 20.5 (19.2 to 21.9) Women: 12.1 (11.0 to 13.3) Exposure to secondhand smoke at home at least once a month was reported by 27.9% of respondents in 2008 (40 million individuals in Brazil 24 million being non-smokers). A higher proportion reported being exposed to secondhand smoke at home in rural than in urban area irrespective of gender (p values < 0.001). In 2008 exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace in Brazil was reported by 24.4% of respondents who worked in enclosed places representing around 12 million individuals in Brazil; of these nine million were not smokers. Women had a lower rate of secondhand smoke exposure at work than men (p value < 0.001). No differences were found between rural and urban areas pertaining to secondhand smoke at work. Not including the workplace about one in every five individuals surveyed reported in 2008 exposure to tobacco smoke in public places corresponding to 26 million individuals in Brazil with 22 million being non-smokers. If exposure to tobacco smoke at work is also included a total of 28 million of non-smokers were exposed to secondhand smoke. Men and women reported similar proportions of exposure to tobacco smoke in public places such as health care facilities restaurants public transportation and government buildings. Individuals living in rural areas were less often exposed to tobacco smoke (p value < 0.001). WHO Region of the Americas
Brunei Darussalam Exposure to smoke (% who reported people smoked in their presence): total: 41.1%; by gender: males 47.3% & females 34.9%. Report not provided Exposure to smoke at home (39.7%) inside any enclosed public place (59.2%) and at any outdoor public place (56.4% WHO Western Pacific Region
Bulgaria About the half of the studied population aged 13-15 reported nearly identical exposure at their homes and inside enclosed public places (50.8% and 50.6% respectively) somewhat but not significantly more girls (55.4% and 56.6 respectively) than boys (46.7% and 45.2% respectively). The question is: How often are you exposed to tobacco smoke indoors? 1. Never or almost never 2. Less than 1 hour per day 3. 1 hour or more a day by indoors we mean at home, at work, at public places, at restaurants etc. Analysis of results indicates that half of children which participate in the survey are exposed to passive smoking in their homes. 45 7 % of fathers and 30.0% of mothers are smoking. Only 42 5 % of children are living in the home without smoke. But including the indicator „smoking of elder relatives” (grandmother grandfather and other relatives) the percentage of this type of homes are reduced to 39 %. Most of the cases are one smoker in the family (respectively 32 % and 31 %). Both of parents smoke in ¼ of the cases and in 5 % of the families the smokers are 3 to 5. WHO European Region
Burkina Faso La prévalence de lexposition du tabac à fumée à domicile était de 36,3% chez les hommes et femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans. Elle était de 47,1 % chez les hommes et de 27,2 chez les femmes. Au lieu du travail, elle était de 22,6% chez les hommes et femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans dont 31,5% chez les hommes et 14,9% chez les femmes. La prévalence de lexposition du tabac à fumée à domicile était de 36,3% chez les hommes et femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans. Elle était de 47,1 % chez les hommes et de 27,2 chez les femmes. Au lieu du travail, elle était de 22,6% chez les hommes et femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans dont 31,5% chez les hommes et 14,9% chez les femmes. La prévalence de l’exposition passive à la fumée de tabac à domicile est de 36 3% chez les hommes et les femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans. Elle est plus élevée chez les hommes (47 1%) que chez les femmes (27 2%). Au lieu de travail elle est de 22 6% chez les hommes et les femmes âgés de 25 à 64 ans. Elle est plus élevée chez les hommes (31 5%) que chez les femmes (14 9%). NB: Selon les termes de l’enquête STEPs Burkina Faso 2013 on entend par exposition à la fumée de tabac toute exposition à la fumée de tabac pendant au moins un jour au cours des sept jours ayant précédé l’entretien WHO African Region
Burundi Report not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Cabo Verde Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Cambodia Exposure by gender at home: Male: 69.5%, Female: 62.1%, Total: 65.6% Exposure by gender at enclosed workplaces: Male: 50.8%, Female: 44.9%, Total: 48% Exposure by gender at public places: 1. Government building: Male: 53.2%, Female: 43.9%, Total: 49.4% 2. Health facilities: Male: 23.2%, Female: 20.3%, Total: 21.6% 3. Restaurants: Male: 78.3%, Female: 73%, Total: 75.8% 4. Public Transport: Male: 35.7%, Female: 31.5%, Total: 33.6% Report not provided Public Area Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: in 2011 NATSC subjects reported seeing (during the 30 days before survey response) indoor smoking occurring most commonly in restaurants and food stores (88.1%) followed by public transportation vehicles (56.7%). government offices (48.8%). offices where they work (44.3%). and health care facilities (17.1%). WHO Western Pacific Region
Cameroon 19,2% des adultes travaillant à lintérieur sont exposés à la fumée du tabac au travail; 15,5% des adultes sont exposés à la fumée du tabac à la maison; 31,9% des adultes sont exposés à la fumée du tabac dans les restaurants; 84,8% des adultes sont exposés à la fumée du tabac dans les bars et Night Clubs; 25,6% des adultes sont exposés à la fumée du tabac dans les cafés ou salons de thé 22,9% des adultes sont exposés à la fumée du tabac dans les transports publics;; Answer not provided Sur l’ensemble de la population non mais chez les élèves de 13 – 15 ans oui 1 élève sur 4 cohabite un fumeur à la maison la moitié côtoie un fumeur au quotidien WHO African Region
Canada Aged 15+ years - frequency of exposure in the past 30 days: Every day – 7.2% Almost every day – 6.2% At least once a week – 18.1% At least once in the past month – 26.2% Never – 42.3% Aged 0 to 17 years – regularly exposed to ETS at home. Children aged 0-11 – 1.8% Children aged 12-17 – 4.8% Children aged 0-17 – 2.9% The Canadian Tobacco Alcohol and Drug Survey (CTADS) did not ask the following " Exposure to tobacco smoke" in the current survey. All 2012 results for Canadian population, age 15+ Exposed inside vehicle: 18.4% Exposed inside someones home: 19.8% Exposed on restaurant/bar patio: 28.0% Exposed inside restaurant: 1.8% Exposed inside bar/tavern: 2.5% Exposed at bus stop or shelter: 16.4% Exposed at entrance to a building: 51.3% Exposed at workplace: 20.9% Exposed on school property: 8.2% Exposed at other public place: 34.1% Exposed on sidewalk or park: 55.2% Exposed anywhere else: 4.3% All results for Canadian population. age 15+ Exposed inside vehicle: 18.4% Exposed inside someones home: 19.8% Exposed on restaurant/bar patio: 28.0% Exposed inside restaurant: 1.8% Exposed inside bar/tavern: 2.5% Exposed at bus stop or shelter: 16.4% Exposed at entrance to a building: 51.3% Exposed at workplace: 20.9% Exposed on school property: 8.2% Exposed at other public place: 34.1% Exposed on sidewalk or park: 55.2% Exposed anywhere else: 4.3% WHO Region of the Americas
Central African Republic Report not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Chad Exposition à la maison: prévalence 33.9%; Garcon = 34.1%; Filles = 31.2% Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Chile De acuerdo a los datos proporcionados por la ENS 2016-2017 un 15,2% esta expuesta la humo de tabaco en su hogar, lo que una tendencia a la disminución que nos indica una disminución significativa entre la ENS 2016-2017 y 2009-2010.(31%) En el lugar de trabajo disminuye la exposición al humo de tabaco de un 24.8% aun 20.3% Alrededor de un 69% de la población chilena está libre de exposición pasiva a tabaco tanto en su trabajo o estudio como en el hogar. En un 11,3% de los hogares se permite fumar a todas las personas. Un 9,7% de la población está siempre o casi siempre expuesto al tabaco en forma pasiva en el lugar de trabajo o estudio las prevalencias de fumador pasivo en el estudio o trabajo. La prevalencia general es del 9,7%, sin diferencias entre hombres y mujeres. Se distingue una tendencia descendente con la edad, cuando los más jóvenes presentan mayores prevalencias de fumador pasivo que los más adultos. El nivel educacional bajo, con menos de 8 años de estudios, presenta prevalencias de fumador pasivo laboral o de estudios significativamente inferior a los NEDU medio y alto. Al ajustar por sexo y edad, se mantiene la diferencia entre NEDU bajo y alto Zonas rurales presentan menor prevalencia de fumadores pasivos que zonas urbanas, situación que se mantiene al ajustar por sexo y edad. La V Región de Valparaíso presenta la menor prevalencia (5,8%) de fumador pasivo en el estudio o trabajo mientras que la VII Región del Maule muestra la mayor prevalencia (11,9%). Ninguna región muestra diferencias significativas con la XII Región Metropolitana cuando se ajusta por sexo y edad. 1) Se realizó estudio de medición de nicotina ambiental en locales para fumadores. no fumadores y locales mixtos (áreas de fumadores y no fumadores) de Santiago. donde la mayor concentración de nicotina en el ambiente se registró en local para fumadores 37.9 ug/m3 versus locales mixtos. en cuya área de fumadores se registró 1.99 ug/m3 y local de no fumadores. donde se registró 0.12 ug/m3. 2) Otro estudio en el cual midieron la exposición individual de trabajadores en bares y restaurantes para fumadores. no fumadores y locales mixtos (areas de fumadores y no fumadores) de Santiago La mediana de concentración de nicotina presentó diferencias según el tipo del local. presentándose los niveles más altos en locales de fumadores. De acuerdo a la ocupación del trabajador. los meseros o garzones. están más expuestos que el personal de cocina. Se observó una mediana de exposición 4.77 veces mayor en estos lugares en comparación con otros lugares de trabajo. 3) Con respecto a la opinión de los trabajadores con respecto a la exposición a humo de tabaco. se puede decir que el 88% de los trabajadores de restoranes y pubs opinó que la exposición al humo de tabaco que emiten otros fumadores es dañina para la salud individual. Y en esto están de acuerdo trabajadores fumadores y no fumadores. no existiendo diferencias según el lugar en el que trabajen. Es un consenso el daño que se genera a los fumadores pasivos. También existe amplio acuerdo sobre los beneficios de implementar una normativa que privilegie los espacios públicos 100% libres de tabaco. Debido a estas razones y a los compromisos asociados al Convenio Marco de Control de Tabaco. junto a otras razones. se modifica en Marzo del 2013 la Ley de Tabaco generándose una modificación que implica el desarrollo de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco. WHO Region of the Americas
China 54.3%的人在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟。男性中有66.3%的人在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟;女性中这个比例为40.0%。城市人群和农村人群在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟的比例无显著差异(分别为52.8%和57.7%)。不同职业人群有所不同,教师和医务人员在工作场所暴露于二手烟的情况最低(分别为27.8%和34.9%)。有两个行业的二手烟暴露率超过50%,农民最高,为78.1%,其次是企业、商业、服务业工作人员(57.6%)。 57.1%的人在家中暴露于二手烟。农村居民(66.7%)的二手烟暴露情况比城市(47.8%)严重,具有显著性差异。教育水平较高的人群在家的二手烟暴露率均较低(大专及以上33.5%);而在教育水平仅初中毕业或更低的人群中,超过60%的人在家中暴露于二手烟。 二手烟暴露问题最严重的室内公共场所为:酒吧/夜总会(93.1%)和餐馆(76.3%),其次是政府大楼(38.1%),医疗机构、大学、中小学和公共交通工具分别为26.9%、23.8%、17.2%和16.4%。更多男性在政府大楼,医疗机构,餐馆酒吧等地暴露于二手烟。 54.3%的人在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟。男性中有66.3%的人在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟;女性中这个比例为40.0%。城市人群和农村人群在室内工作场所暴露于二手烟的比例无显著差异(分别为52.8%和57.7%)。不同职业人群有所不同,教师和医务人员在工作场所暴露于二手烟的情况最低(分别为27.8%和34.9%)。有两个行业的二手烟暴露率超过50%,农民最高,为78.1%,其次是企业、商业、服务业工作人员(57.6%)。 57.1%的人在家中暴露于二手烟。农村居民(66.7%)的二手烟暴露情况比城市(47.8%)严重,具有显著性差异。教育水平较高的人群在家的二手烟暴露率均较低(大专及以上33.5%);而在教育水平仅初中毕业或更低的人群中,超过60%的人在家中暴露于二手烟。 二手烟暴露问题最严重的室内公共场所为:酒吧/夜总会(93.1%)和餐馆(76.3%),其次是政府大楼(38.1%),医疗机构、大学、中小学和公共交通工具分别为26.9%、23.8%、17.2%和16.4%。更多男性在政府大楼,医疗机构,餐馆酒吧等地暴露于二手烟。 72.4% non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke for which males were 74.1% exposed to second-hand smoke and 71.6% female were exposed to second-hand smoke. Among all respondents 67.3% are exposed to second-hand smoke at home 70.5% males exposed to second-hand smoke in the home 63.9% of women exposed to second-hand smoke in the home. Among all respondents 63.3% exposed to second-hand smoke in indoor workplaces 71.1% males exposed to second-hand smoke in indoor workplaces 53.2% of women exposed to second-hand smoke in indoor workplaces. Among all respondents 34.1% exposed to second-hand smoke in public transport carriers 36.4% males exposed to second-hand smoke in public transport 31.5% of women exposed to second-hand smoke in public transport carriers. WHO Western Pacific Region
Colombia Exposición en la vivienda 12% de los individuos reportan que alguien fuma en su vivienda 82% de los que reportan que alguien fuma en su vivienda indican una frecuencia de exposición diaria Exposición en establecimientos educativos 10% Encuestados que estudian indican que en su institución se permite fumar en áreas cerradas 44% Encuestados que estudian indican que en su institución se permite fumar en áreas abiertas Exposición en lugar de trabajo 13% Encuestados que trabajan indican que en su lugar de trabajo se permite fumar en áreas cerradas 44% Encuestados que trabajan indican que en su lugar de trabajo se permite fumar en áreas abiertas En Bogotá D.C., en 2009, en un trabajo conjunto entre la Universidad Sergio Arboleda y la Secretaría Distrital de Salud de Bogotá, con el apoyo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y la Escuela de Salud Pública de la Universidad Johns Hopkins, se desarrolló un estudio para estimar la calidad del aire y la exposición a nicotina en diversos lugares públicos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de nicotina en el aire al interior de lugares públicos como: hospitales, establecimientos educativos, centros del gobierno, centros de transporte, restaurantes y bares en Bogotá. Se instalaron 120 filtros, que permitieron monitorear la presencia de nicotina en 75 áreas de los diferentes establecimientos seleccionados. Se detectó nicotina en el aire en el 35% (26 de las 75 áreas monitoreadas). Es importante señalar que hay grandes diferencias según el tipo de establecimiento. Los lugares con mayor número de áreas en las que se detectó nicotina fueron los sitios de entretenimiento, como bares y restaurantes, con los mayores niveles de concentración de nicotina (0,89 μg/m3). En más de la mitad de los monitores instalados se obtuvieron valores por encima del límite de detección, el cual es de 0,0067 microgramos. A continuación se muestran los datos obtenidos en el estudio: - De los centros de transporte, el 75% son áreas con nicotina detectable. - De los centros del gobierno, el 25% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los hospitales, el 11% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los establecimientos educativos (colegios), el 50% son áreas con nicotina detectable - De los restaurantes, el 57% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los bares, el 100% son áreas con nicotina detectable. En Bogotá D.C.. en 2009. en un trabajo conjunto entre la Universidad Sergio Arboleda y la Secretaría Distrital de Salud de Bogotá. con el apoyo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y la Escuela de Salud Pública de la Universidad Johns Hopkins. se desarrolló un estudio para estimar la calidad del aire y la exposición a nicotina en diversos lugares públicos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de nicotina en el aire al interior de lugares públicos como: hospitales. establecimientos educativos. centros del gobierno. centros de transporte. restaurantes y bares en Bogotá. Se instalaron 120 filtros. que permitieron monitorear la presencia de nicotina en 75 áreas de los diferentes establecimientos seleccionados. Se detectó nicotina en el aire en el 35% (26 de las 75 áreas monitoreadas). Es importante señalar que hay grandes diferencias según el tipo de establecimiento. Los lugares con mayor número de áreas en las que se detectó nicotina fueron los sitios de entretenimiento. como bares y restaurantes. con los mayores niveles de concentración de nicotina (0.89 µg/m3). En más de la mitad de los monitores instalados se obtuvieron valores por encima del límite de detección. el cual es de 0.0067 microgramos. A continuación se muestran los datos obtenidos en el estudio: - De los centros de transporte. el 75% son áreas con nicotina detectable. - De los centros del gobierno. el 25% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los hospitales. el 11% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los establecimientos educativos (colegios). el 50% son áreas con nicotina detectable - De los restaurantes. el 57% reportó presencia de nicotina. - De los bares. el 100% son áreas con nicotina detectable. WHO Region of the Americas
Comoros 44 % des participants sont exposés à la fumée dans la maison pendant au moins un jour au cours des 7 derniers jours précédants lenquête Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Congo Report not provided Answer not provided 38% de la population enquêtée confirme être exposé à la fumée du tabac dans les lieux publics 33% dans les transports en commun (bus) 21% à la maison 16% dans les bars dancing et 15% au lieu du travail WHO African Region
Cook Islands Male – 67.6%, Female – 68.7: 13-15 years of age – people smoked in their presence one or more days; Male – 67.6%, Female – 68.7: 13-15 years of age – people smoked in their presence one or more days; Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Costa Rica Exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco adultos GATS 2015: El 6,3% de adultos quienes trabajan en espacios cerrados (100 mil) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco en su lugar de trabajo. Un 4,9% de adultos (200 mil adultos) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco en su hogar y el 7,9% de adultos (100 mil adultos) quienes visitaron un restaurante en los últimos 30 días, estuvieron expuestos al humo de Tabaco. Exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco jóvenes GYTS 2013: El 16.7% de los estudiantes estuvo expuesto al humo del tabaco en su hogar. El 40% de los estudiantes estuvo expuesto al humo de tabaco ajeno en los lugares públicos cerrados y el 44.1% en lugares públicos abiertos. Exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco adultos GATS 2015 El 6,3% de adultos quienes trabajan en espacios cerrados (100 mil) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco en su lugar de trabajo. Un 4,9% de adultos (200 mil adultos) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco en su hogar y el 7,9% de adultos (100 mil adultos) quienes visitaron un restaurante en los últimos 30 días, estuvieron expuestos al humo de Tabaco. Exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco jóvenes GYTS 2013 El 16.7% de los estudiantes estuvo expuesto al humo del tabaco en su hogar. El 40% de los estudiantes estuvo expuesto al humo de tabaco ajeno en los lugares públicos cerrados y el 44.1% en lugares públicos abiertos. 15% hogar. 15% amigos. 10.8% colegio. 74% vía pública. 39% bares. 22% transporte público. 18% actividades culturales y deportivas y 12% otros lugares WHO Region of the Americas
Côte d'Ivoire Il sagit dexposition dans les lieux accueillant du public. Answer not provided 3709 sujets non consommateurs de tabac enquêtés à Abidjan ont incriminé à: - 75 4% les lieux publics; - 13 5% les domiciles; - 11 1% les lieux de travail comme sites où ils subissaient le plus souvent le tabagisme passif. WHO African Region
Croatia 21% of nonsmokers report being exposed to tobacco smoke in their home: 20.0% male, 21.9% female; 15-24 years 32.9%, 25-44 years 21.9%, 45-64 years 20.7%, 65+ years 14.2 %; elementary school or less 20.1%, high school or short vocational training after elementary school 20.9%, postsecondary higher school or university level 13.8%. 11.7% of nonsmokers report being exposed to tobacco smoke at their work: 15.0% male, 8.3% female; elementary school or less 13.2%, high school or short vocational training after elementary school 13.4%, postsecondary higher school or university level 7.7%. 21% of nonsmokers report being exposed to tobacco smoke in their home: 20.0% male, 21.9% female; 15-24 years 32.9%, 25-44 years 21.9%, 45-64 years 20.7%, 65+ years 14.2 %; elementary school or less 20.1%, high school or short vocational training after elementary school 20.9%, postsecondary higher school or university level 13.8%. 11.7% of nonsmokers report being exposed to tobacco smoke at their work: 15.0% male, 8.3% female; elementary school or less 13.2%, high school or short vocational training after elementary school 13.4%, postsecondary higher school or university level 7.7%. 66 9% students ages 13 to 15 years report that they live in homes where others smoke in their presence (65% boys; 68 8% girls) 67 9% report that are around others who smoke in enclosed public places 78 7% are around others who smoke in outdoor public places WHO European Region
Cyprus In terms of exposure to smoke, 65% of respondents noted that the last time they visited a drinking establishment they were exposed to indoor smoking, and 51% noted that there was indoor smoking the last time they visited an eating establishment such as a restaurant. No data was reported regarding workplace smoking. In terms of exposure to smoke, 74% of respondents noted that the last time they visited a drinking establishment they were exposed to indoor smoking, and 53% noted that there was indoor smoking the last time they visited an eating establishment such as a restaurant. Regarding workplace smoking, 3% of the sample said that they are exposed to smoke more than 5 hours per day, 14% 1 to 5 hours per day, 14% less than 1 hour per day and 24% occasionally. Exposure at public places and in the workplace. Drinking establishments 76% Eating establishments 49% Workplace(more than 1 hour a day) 17% WHO European Region
Czech Republic Approximately 19% of respondents are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes, out of which 8.8% are non-smokers. The youngest age group of 15-24 years old still constitutes the highest share of those. Compared to 2015, an increase in total number of smokers exposed to smoke at home (15.2% vs. 19%) in non-smokers is a minor difference compared to 2015. Men are exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace more than twice as much as women, as well as for smokers and non-smokers. Compared to 2015, the number of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (20% vs. 15.2%) increased. The persistently high percentage of non-smokers exposed to smoke in indoor workplaces will need to be further monitored in connection with the introduction of measures to protect them. Survey Report 2014: Almost a quarter of the respondents were exposed to tobacco smoke at home (23.0%), and roughly a half of these are non-smokers. A startling fact is that the highest proportion of those is the youngest group aged 15-24, which includes the adolescents aged 15-18. The exposure to tobacco smoke in this age group (20.4%) is twice as high as in other age categories. The results from 2012 and 2014 are very similar; no improvement of the situation occurred. Men are more often exposed to tobacco smoke at a workplace than women. The number of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke is decreasing along the increasing level of education by more than a half. When compared to 2012, there was a decline of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke by 5% (19.6% vs. 14.4%). Nonetheless, the high percentage of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke in enclosed workplaces demands further clarification. (details as regards exposure to tobacco smoke by gender, age group, at home, in the workplace available) Some results from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) – Czech Republic 2011: 43 % of students live in homes where others smoke in their presence 45 8 % of students are around others who smoke in enclosed public places 75 6 % of students are around others who smoke in outdoor public places. (Data from GYTS only refers to the age group of 13-15) Survey Report 2012: Almost a quarter of the respondents are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The highest share of these numbers was recorded with the youngest group of people aged 15 – 24. A high percentage of non-smokers are also exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace (19.8 % of employees) (details as regards exposure by gender age group at home in the workplace available WHO European Region
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Proportion of second-hand smoking in indoor workplaces in the last 1 month: Male 51.3%, Female 35.8% Total 43.2% Proportion of second-hand smoking in the living in the the last 1 month: Male 48%, Female 36.5% Total 42% Pulic places: Male 40.2%, Female 42.6% Total 41.5% Health facilities: Male 9%, Female 8.4% Total 8.7% Restaurants: Male 68.8%, Female 69.1% Total 68.9% Public transports: Male 13.6%, Female 12.9% Total 13.2% Report not provided Proportion of smokers in the living room. 30% WHO South-East Asia Region
Democratic Republic of the Congo Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Denmark 9.8 percent of all men and 7.8 percent of all women state that they are exposed to tobacco a minimum of 30 minutes per day. 13.8 percent of males in the age group 16-24 years state that they are exposed to tobacco smoke at least 30 minutes per day. For women in the same age group the percentage is 13.7. Last survey was in 2015. So no new data since last questionnaire. 9.8 percent of all men and 7.8 percent of all women state that they are exposed to tobacco a minimum of 30 minutes per day. 13.8 percent of males in the age group 16-24 years state that they are exposed to tobacco smoke at least 30 minutes per day. For women in the same age group the percentage is 13.7. 9.8 percent of all men and 7.8 percent of all women state that they are exposed to tobacco a minimum of 30 minutes per day. 13.8 percent of males in the age group 16-24 years state that they are exposed to tobacco smoke at least 30 minutes per day. For women in the same age group the percentage is 13.7. WHO European Region
Djibouti Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Dominica Report not provided 10.6% of males and 9.1% of females are Exposed at home 29.7% of males and 13.1% of females are exposed in the workplace Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Ecuador En la Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaco en Jóvenes (2016), se encontró que 16,7% de estudiantes entre 13 y 15 años de edad estaban expuestos al humo de tabaco en el hogar, de los cuales 17,7% son hombres y 15,6% son mujeres. Adicionalmente se descubrió que 31,5% de estudiantes estaban expuestos al humo de tabaco en lugares públicos cerrados, de los cuales 28,8% son hombres y 34,3% son mujeres. Por último, se descubrió que el 32,4% de estudiantes estaban expuestos al humo de tabaco en cualquier lugar, de los cuales 30,3% son hombres y 34,5% son mujeres. En Guayaquil, 17,7% de estudiantes estaban expuestos al humo de tabaco en el hogar y 29,4% en espacios públicos cerrados. En Quito, 22,7% de estudiantes estaban expuestos al humo de tabaco en el hogar y 41,7% en espacios públicos cerrados. En la ENSANUT 2011-2013, se obtuvieron estos datos sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar: - El 27,6% de la población entre 10 a 19 años declara que alguien fuma en su hogar. Además, para añadir información a este punto, se sugiere tener en cuenta los datos de la Encuesta Mundial de tabaquismo en Jóvenes del 2007 en la población de Guayaquil: - El 41.6% declara estar rodeado de otros que fuman en espacios fuera de su casa. - El 28.35 declara vivir en casas donde otros fumadores fuman en su presencia. - 36.1% declara tener uno o más padres que fuman - 12.3% declara tener amigos que fuman En la población de Quito: - El 28,9% declara vivir en casas donde otros fumadores fuman en su presencia - El 52,5% declara estar rodeado de otros que fuman en espacios fuera de su casa - El 52,4% declara tener uno o más padres que fuman - El 13% declara tener amigos que fuman En la población de Zamora: - El 38,7% declara vivir en casas donde otros fumadores fuman en su presencia - El 64,3% declara estar rodeado de otros que fuman en espacios fuera de su casa - El 64,5% declara tener uno o más padres que fuman - El 20,8% declara tener amigos que fuman Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Egypt restaurants 70% - health facilities 49% - work places 61% - public transportation 80% restaurants 70% - health facilities 49% - work places 61% - public transportation 80% 61% at workplaces; 80% in public places; 49% in health care facilities WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
El Salvador Exposición por sexo en el hogar Exposición por sexo en lugares públicos abiertos Exposición por sexo en lugares públicos cerrados Exposición en establecimientos educativos Exposición por sexo en el hogar Exposición por sexo en lugares públicos 8.3% de la población de 18 y más años estuvo expuesta al humo de segunda mano en espacios cerrados dentro del hogar en la semana previa a la realización de la entrevista WHO Region of the Americas
Equatorial Guinea Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Estonia Distribution (%) of employed respondents by time spent in smoky rooms at workplace: Males: >5 hours a day 4.6 1–5 hours a day 5.9 <1 hour a day 13.4 Almost never 75.7 Females: >5 hours a day 0.8 1–5 hours a day 1.7 <1 hour a day 6.4 Almost never 90.2 Total: >5 hours a day 2.4 1–5 hours a day 3.4 <1 hour a day 9.3 Almost never 84.2 Distribution (%) of respondents by time spent in public spaces where people smoke: Males: >5 hours a day 1.4 1–5 hours a day 3.0 <1 hour a day 13.5 Almost never 82.2 Females: >5 hours a day 0.4 1–5 hours a day 1.9 <1 hour a day 8.2 Almost never 89.5 Total: >5 hours a day 0.8 1–5 hours a day 2.4 <1 hour a day 10.4 Almost never 86.5 Distribution (%) of respondents by smoking at home in living quarters (respondent or family member): Males: Yes 17.5 No 82.5 Females: Yes 13.7 No 86.3 Total: Yes 15.2 No 84.8 Distribution (%) of employed respondents by time spent in smoky rooms at workplace: Males: >5 hours a day 7.9 1–5 hours a day 7.8 <1 hour a day 13.8 Almost never 70.5 Females: >5 hours a day 1.6 1–5 hours a day 1.4 <1 hour a day 7.1 Almost never 89.9 Total: >5 hours a day 4.2 1–5 hours a day 4.0 <1 hour a day 9.8 Almost never 82.0 Distribution (%) of respondents by time spent in public spaces where people smoke: Males: >5 hours a day 2.2 1–5 hours a day 3.5 <1 hour a day 12.8 Almost never 81.5 Females: >5 hours a day 1.0 1–5 hours a day 1.4 <1 hour a day 12.5 Almost never 85.1 Total: >5 hours a day 1.5 1–5 hours a day 2.2 <1 hour a day 12.6 Almost never 83.7 Distribution (%) of respondents by smoking at home in living quarters (respondent or family member): Males: Yes 21.7 No 78.3 Females: Yes 18.1 No 81.9 Total: Yes 19.5 No 80.5 Distribution (%) of employed respondents by time spent in smoky rooms at workplace sex and age Males >5 hours a day 8 4 1–5 hours a day 7 7 <1 hour a day 17 2 Almost never 66 7 Females >5 hours a day 0 8 1–5 hours a day 2 1 <1 hour a day 5 8 Almost never 81 2 Total >5 hours a day 4 1 1–5 hours a day 4 5 <1 hour a day 10 8 Almost never 80 6 Distribution (%) of respondents by time spent in public spaces where people smoke Males >5 hours a day 2 4 1–5 hours a day 4 8 <1 hour a day 17 3 Almost never 75 5 Females >5 hours a day 0 8 1–5 hours a day 2 8 <1 hour a day 9 4 Almost never 87 0 Total >5 hours a day 1 5 1–5 hours a day 3 7 <1 hour a day 12 8 Almost never 82 1 Distribution (%) of respondents by spending time at home in rooms where people smoke Males Yes: 24 7 No: 75 3 Females Yes: 21 0 No: 79 0 Total Yes: 22 6 No: 77 4 WHO European Region
Ethiopia Report not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
European Union Exposure to tobacco at work in 2014: 27% exposed (17% occasionally, 4 % for less than one hour a day, 3% for 1-5 hours a day, 3% for more than 5 hours a day). Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places in 2017: 20% in bars and 19% in restaurants (percentage exposed during a visit within the last six months). Exposure to tobacco at work : 27% exposed (17% occasionally, 4 % for less than one hour a day, 3% for 1-5 hours a day, 3% for more than 5 hours a day). Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places: 25% in bars and 12% in restaurants (percentage exposed during a visit within the last six months). Exposure to tobacco smoke in private settings: 38% of EU citizens allow smoking in the house 28% of car owners allow smoking in their car * Exposure to tobacco smoke at work: 28% (17% occasionally 4 % for less than one hour a day 4% for 1-5 hours a day 3% for more than 5 hours a day) Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places: bars (28%) restaurants (14%) - exposed during a visit within the last six months WHO European Region
Fiji Report not provided Report not provided Among boys age 13-15 55.9% reported being in the presence of people who smoked at least one or more days during the past seven days; and among girls age 13-15 55.4% WHO Western Pacific Region
Finland Exposure to tobacco smoke at work, at home or other places (an hour a day or more): men 6,0 % and women 3,3 %. Exposure to tobacco smoke at work (less than hour a day or more): men 8,2 % and women 3,4 %. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home by partner, other adult and a person under 18 years (non-smokers and ex-smokers): men 2,1 % and women 3,9 %. Exposure to tobacco smoke at work (less than hour a day or more): men 8.7 % and women 4.2 %. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home by partner other adult and a person under 18 years (non-smokers and ex-smokers): men 0.2 % and women 3.5 %. WHO European Region
France Tabagisme au domicile : En 2014, au sein de la population de France métropolitaine, 28,2% des 15-75 ans déclaraient que quelqu’un fumait à l’intérieur de leur domicile, 8,2% de temps en temps et 20,0% régulièrement. La présence d’un fumeur à domicile était logiquement liée au statut tabagique : elle était de 15,7% chez les non-fumeurs et 52,2% chez les fumeurs. Les plus jeunes non-fumeurs étaient particulièrement nombreux à déclarer un tabagisme au domicile en 2014 (30,3% des 15-24 ans). En une décennie, la proportion de la population déclarant un tabagisme à domicile est passée de 32,8% en 2005 à 28,2% en 2014. Dans les lieux à usage collectif : 1) Les lieux de travail (intérieur des locaux) ne sont pas totalement non-fumeurs : 15% des actifs occupés déclaraient avoir été exposés à la fumée de tabac des autres au moins une fois au cours des 30 derniers jours. 2) Près des trois quarts des élèves et étudiants de plus de 15 ans déclaraient avoir été exposés à la fumée de tabac des autres « à l’école, au lycée, à l’université », sans précision sur le lieu exact (intérieur ou extérieur). Les expositions aux abords des établissements ont été probablement en partie comptabilisées ici ; ce résultat reste néanmoins préoccupant. 3) Parmi les 15-75 ans qui ont fréquenté ces lieux au cours des 30 derniers jours, 9% ont déclaré avoir été exposés à la fumée de tabac au moins une fois au restaurant, 30% dans les cafés, bars, pubs, et 40% dans les discothèques. Ces données pour les lieux de convivialité, à la hausse par rapport à celles relevées dans le cadre de l’enquête International Tobacco Control (ITC) de fin 2012, semblent suggérer un recul de l’application de la législation. Cette interprétation est cependant à prendre avec précaution, les questions n’étant pas identiques. Parmi les 15-75 ans en 2014, exposition à la fumée de tabac au cours des 30 derniers jours parmi l’ensemble de la population : - A domicile : 28,2 % - Au lycée, à l’université, à l’école (parmi les étudiants) : 76,8 % - Au travail (parmi les travailleurs) : 15,5 % - Dans les cafés, bars ou pubs : 14,2 % - Dans les restaurants : 6,0 % - En discothèque : 3,8 % Vu des gens fumer au cours du mois écoulé (ITC ; 12/2012) Bars pubs cafés : 6.6% Restaurants : 1.4% Lieux de travail : 12.8% WHO European Region
Gabon lenquête GYTS a révélé que les jeunes ont été exposés dans la maison, dans les espaces publics clos, dans les taxis et dans les établissements scolaires Voir section 3.2 (Annex 1, Rapport final GYTS 2014) Answer not provided WHO African Region
Gambia AT Home: Male 61.6 and Female 44.8 At Workplace Male 47.0 and Female 19.4 AT Home: Male 61.6 and Female 44.8 At Workplace Male 47.0 and Female 19.4 At home boy 45.8%; girls 44.4% public places boy 61.6; girls 57.2 WHO African Region
Georgia Exposed to tobacco second-hand smoke in home during the past 30 days (age 18-69): men 47.2%, women 39.1%, both sexes 43.0% Exposed to tobacco second-hand smoke in the workplace during the past 30 days (age 18-69): men 23.7%, women 9.0%, both sexes 15.8% Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO European Region
Germany 11.3 % of the non-smoking population (age 18+) are exposed to second hand tobacco smoke on a regular base. Rates were higher in males (14.7 %) than in females (8.3 %). Tobacco smoke exposure is highest in the age group 18-29 years. More men than women are exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace. 43 % of the minor population (age up to 17) lives together with at least one parent that smokes, in 15 % both parents are smokers. 11 % of the parents declare that they smoke at home in the presence of their kids. 27,3 % of the non-smoking population (age 18+) are at least once a week exposed to second hand tobacco smoke. Rates were higher in males (33,8 %) than in females (21,7 %). Tobacco smoke exposure is highest in the age group 18-29 years. More men than women are exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace. 43 % of the minor population (age up to 17) lives together with at least one parent that smokes, in 15 % both parents are smokers. 12 % of the parents declare that they smoke at home in the presence of their kids. 58.5 % of men (age 18+) and 74.8 % of women (age 18+) are never exposed to tobacco smoke. 13.3 % of men and 8.7 % of women are exposed daily to tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke exposure is highest in the age group 18-29 years. More men than women are exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace. WHO European Region
Ghana 23% of students reported exposure to tobacco smoke at home and 39% exposed in enclosed public area. In 2000 41.4% of students were exposed to smoke in public places, reducing to 31.6% in 2006, 32.3% in 2009 Students reported reduction in exposure between 2000 and 2009. In 2000 22.2% students lived in homes where others smoked in their presence, reducing to 15.9% in 2006 and rising to 19.1% in 2009. In 2000 41.4% of students were exposed to smoke in public places, reducing to 31.6% in 2006 and 32.3% in 2009 Students reported reduction in exposure between 2000 and 2009. In 2000 22.2% students lived in homes where others smoked in their presence reducing to 15.9% in 2006 and rising to 19.1% in 2009. In 2000 41.4% of students were exposed to smoke in public places reducing to 31.6% in 2006 and 32.3% in 2009 WHO African Region
Greece Non Exposed to tobacco smoke: Male: at home (72.8%), in the workplace (79.6%), in public areas (34%) Female: at home (71.4%), in the workplace (92.3%), in public areas (54.2%) Non Exposed to tobacco smoke: Male: at home (72.8%), in the workplace (79.6%), in public areas (34%) Female: at home (71.4%), in the workplace (92.3%), in public areas (54.2%) Exposure in the workplace: 52.3% - at home : 65.7% - on restaurants: 72.2% WHO European Region
Grenada At home overall 18.2% of respondents of the GYTS (17% male and 18.6% female) At home 27.3% of respondents of the GYTS (27.3% male and 29.7% female) At home 27.3% (24.9% male and 29.7% female) WHO Region of the Americas
Guatemala De acuerdo con la Encuesta GYTS 2015, se tienen los siguientes datos sobre la exposición al humo de segunda mano para jóvenes de 13-15 años: En el hogar, 21.6% de jóvenes (20.9% hombres, 22.3% mujeres), lo que muestra una disminución moderada, pero sostenida, con respecto a datos de 2008 y 2006: Exposición de 23.1% y 25.8% respectivamente. En lugares públicos cerrados, 38.6% de jóvenes (37.5% hombres, 39.9% mujeres), lo que muestra una disminución moderada, pero sostenida, con respecto a datos de 2008 y 2006: Exposición de 40.8% y 46.6% respectivamente. 23.1% de jóvenes expuestos al humo de tabaco en el hogar Aproximadamente 23.1 % de jóvenes expuestos al humo del tabaco en el hogar WHO Region of the Americas
Guinea Report not provided Lexposition à la fumée secondaire est modérée: plus dun tiers des étudiants vit dans un foyer où d’autres personnes fument; 1 élève sur 3 sont exposés à la fumée secondaire dans les lieux publics; près dun quart des élèves ont au moins un parent qui fume. Report not provided WHO African Region
Guinea-Bissau 31% are living in the households where people smoke 35.3% are exposed to tobacco outside their homes 31% are living in the households where people smoke 35.3% are exposed to tobacco outside their homes Report not provided WHO African Region
Guyana Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Honduras EXPOSICIÓN AMBIENTAL A HUMO DE TABACO EN TEGUCIGALPA. Autores: Ana Navas Acien. Claudia Deyanira Gómez Mass. Victoria Durón H. Enio Alvarenga Chinchilla. / Con el apoyo de la OPS y del IHADFA llevaron a cabo dicho estudio en el año 2005 siendo los principales hallazgos los siguientes: Los niveles encontrados para el conjunto de la ciudad pueden clasificarse como bajos-moderados. Sin embargo, se detectó exposición a humo de tabaco en lugares en los que está prohibido fumar como el aeropuerto o la oficina gubernamental y el nivel de exposición llega a alto o muy alto en los restaurantes y bares. La detección de nicotina en el ambiente indica que existe exposición a los productos tóxicos y carcinógenos que se encuentran en el humo del tabaco. A pesar de haber utilizado un muestreo de conveniencia, se intentó abarcar lugares muy diversos de toda la ciudad, así como niveles socioeconómicos muy diferentes, por lo que podemos pensar que estos resultados reflejan la situación de exposición a humo de tabaco en Tegucigalpa y evaluar la situación de humo ambiental de tabaco para el conjunto de la ciudad. A continuación se presenta la discusión para cada tipo de institución: En promedio en el hospital, los niveles, son en general prácticamente nulos, e inferiores a los encontrados en hospitales similares de otros países, como por ejemplo en el caso de Uruguay (12) donde se evidenció exposición a humo de tabaco en todos los lugares monitorizados en el hospital objeto de estudio9. Sin embargo, se detectó nicotina en algunas salas, fundamentalmente de personal médico. Es por lo tanto prioritario fortalecer programas de ambientes libres de humo que involucren a los profesionales sanitarios. Es importante que los profesionales de la salud tomen la iniciativa con el fin de poder conseguir un hospital 100% libre de humo en un futuro muy próximo. En este sentido es muy positivo el hecho de que el 80% de las personas encuestadas en el hospital estarían de acuerdo en convertir el hospital en un lugar libre de humo. En los colegios, los niveles encontrados son prácticamente nulos, y en general, pueden considerarse libres de humo. Los niveles de exposición a humo de tabaco en la oficina de gobierno son moderados. En la misma está prohibido fumar, sin embargo, es prioritario hacer un esfuerzo con el fin de reducir la presencia de humo en lugares como los baños, los pasillos y escaleras y poder conseguir, para el caso, en un futuro próximo la municipalidad sea un lugar completamente libre de humo. Los edificios de gobierno, deben servir de ejemplo para otros centros de trabajo. 4. En el aeropuerto se encontraron niveles moderados-altos de nicotina, incluidas las salas en las que está prohibido fumar. Esto puede indicar que no se respetan las normas o que la separación entre salas de fumadores y de no fumadores no es adecuada y no protege a los no fumadores de los riesgos derivados del tabaquismo pasivo. 5. La exposición a humo de tabaco en restaurantes y bares es alta o muy alta. Los niveles encontrados son muy similares a los referidos en estudios realizados en otros países de América Latina. Los niveles de exposición en restaurantes y bares suponen especialmente un riesgo para las personas que ahí trabajan y que están expuestas de forma crónica al humo de tabaco. Los niveles recogidos en las zonas de no fumadores adyacentes a zonas de fumadores demuestran la ineficacia de esta medida si no existe separación total de las zonas. Sin embargo, los niveles encontrados en un restaurante en el que está prohibido fumar en todo el espacio indican que es posible reducir el nivel de exposición a humo de tabaco en los restaurantes hasta niveles prácticamente nulos y proteger a los clientes y trabajadores de los riesgos del tabaquismo pasivo. EXPOSICIÓN AMBIENTAL A HUMO DE TABACO EN TEGUCIGALPA. Autores: Ana Navas Acien. Claudia Deyanira Gómez Mass. Victoria Durón H. Enio Alvarenga Chinchilla. / Con el apoyo de la OPS y del IHADFA llevaron a cabo dicho estudio en el año 2005 siendo los principales hallazgos los siguientes: Los niveles encontrados para el conjunto de la ciudad pueden clasificarse como bajos-moderados. Sin embargo, se detectó exposición a humo de tabaco en lugares en los que está prohibido fumar como el aeropuerto o la oficina gubernamental y el nivel de exposición llega a alto o muy alto en los restaurantes y bares. La detección de nicotina en el ambiente indica que existe exposición a los productos tóxicos y carcinógenos que se encuentran en el humo del tabaco. A pesar de haber utilizado un muestreo de conveniencia, se intentó abarcar lugares muy diversos de toda la ciudad, así como niveles socioeconómicos muy diferentes, por lo que podemos pensar que estos resultados reflejan la situación de exposición a humo de tabaco en Tegucigalpa y evaluar la situación de humo ambiental de tabaco para el conjunto de la ciudad. A continuación se presenta la discusión para cada tipo de institución: En promedio en el hospital, los niveles, son en general prácticamente nulos, e inferiores a los encontrados en hospitales similares de otros países, como por ejemplo en el caso de Uruguay (12) donde se evidenció exposición a humo de tabaco en todos los lugares monitorizados en el hospital objeto de estudio9. Sin embargo, se detectó nicotina en algunas salas, fundamentalmente de personal médico. Es por lo tanto prioritario fortalecer programas de ambientes libres de humo que involucren a los profesionales sanitarios. Es importante que los profesionales de la salud tomen la iniciativa con el fin de poder conseguir un hospital 100% libre de humo en un futuro muy próximo. En este sentido es muy positivo el hecho de que el 80% de las personas encuestadas en el hospital estarían de acuerdo en convertir el hospital en un lugar libre de humo. En los colegios, los niveles encontrados son prácticamente nulos, y en general, pueden considerarse libres de humo. Los niveles de exposición a humo de tabaco en la oficina de gobierno son moderados. En la misma está prohibido fumar, sin embargo, es prioritario hacer un esfuerzo con el fin de reducir la presencia de humo en lugares como los baños, los pasillos y escaleras y poder conseguir, para el caso, en un futuro próximo la municipalidad sea un lugar completamente libre de humo. Los edificios de gobierno, deben servir de ejemplo para otros centros de trabajo. 4. En el aeropuerto se encontraron niveles moderados-altos de nicotina, incluidas las salas en las que está prohibido fumar. Esto puede indicar que no se respetan las normas o que la separación entre salas de fumadores y de no fumadores no es adecuada y no protege a los no fumadores de los riesgos derivados del tabaquismo pasivo. 5. La exposición a humo de tabaco en restaurantes y bares es alta o muy alta. Los niveles encontrados son muy similares a los referidos en estudios realizados en otros países de América Latina. Los niveles de exposición en restaurantes y bares suponen especialmente un riesgo para las personas que ahí trabajan y que están expuestas de forma crónica al humo de tabaco. Los niveles recogidos en las zonas de no fumadores adyacentes a zonas de fumadores demuestran la ineficacia de esta medida si no existe separación total de las zonas. Sin embargo, los niveles encontrados en un restaurante en el que está prohibido fumar en todo el espacio indican que es posible reducir el nivel de exposición a humo de tabaco en los restaurantes hasta niveles prácticamente nulos y proteger a los clientes y trabajadores de los riesgos del tabaquismo pasivo. Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Hungary 84.5% of the population (82.3% for males and 86.4% for females) is never exposed to passive tobacco smoking in their home; 80.3% (76.1% and 84.1%) is never exposed to passive tobacco smoking in other places. 84.5% of the population (82.3% for males and 86.4% for females) is never exposed to passive tobacco smoking in their home; 80.3% (76.1% and 84.1%) is never exposed to passive tobacco smoking in other places. In 2013. 63% of smokers and 92% of non-smokers were never exposed to tobacco smoke at their home. In 2012. this rate was 33% among smokers and 88% among non-smokers. Rate of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke in enclosed air space: health care provider: 6.5% public education institution: 3.75% public institution: 5.8% restaurant: 5.52% disco. music hall: 7.61% pub: 8.62% public transportation (train): 4.42% public area (waiting room): 8.33% workplace: 6.64% Compare to 2012. the expose to tobacco smoke among non-smokers decreased in public education institution. public institution. restaurants. pubs. discos and workplaces. on trains and in waiting rooms however it increased in the area of health care provider. Rate of non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke at open air space: play ground: 20% public transport area: 35.96% public transport waiting area: 28.53% passageway: 43.16% Compare to 2012. the expose to tobacco smoke among non-smokers decreased in public transport area and public transport waiting area. however it increased in playground and passageways. The exposition of passive smoking was declined due to the 2012 amendments of Act XLII of 1999 on the Protection of Non-Smokers and Certain Regulations on the Consumption and Distribution of Tobacco Products. WHO European Region
Iceland The study refers to exposure to tobacco smoke at home of 3 year old children. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Icelandic Homes: Infant Exposure and Parental Attitudes and Behavior Development within Iceland between 1995 and 2006 The full report of this survey is given in Annex 3. The study refers to exposure to tobacco smoke at home of 3 year old children. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Icelandic Homes: Infant Exposure and Parental Attitudes and Behavior Development within Iceland between 1995 and 2006 The full report of this survey is given in Annex 3. The study refers to exposure to tobacco smoke at home of 3 year old children. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Icelandic Homes: Infant Exposure and Parental Attitudes and Behaviour Development within Iceland between 1995 and 2006 The full report of this survey is given in Annex 4. WHO European Region
India 38.7% of adults exposed to SHS at Home (Male 38.1% , Female – 39.3%) 30.2% of adults exposed to SHS at Workplace (Male 32.7% , Female – 17.9 %) 23.0% of adults exposed to SHS at any public places includes Government offices/buildings, health care facilities, restaurants, and public Transportation vehicles or stations 52% of adults exposed to SHS at Home (Male 52.5% , Female – 52.5%) 30% of adults exposed to SHS at Workplace (Male 32.2% , Female – 19.4 %) 18% of adults exposed to SHS at Public Transport (Male 22% , Female – 12.6 %) 52% of adults exposed to SHS at Home (Male 52.5%. Female – 52.5%); 30% of adults exposed to SHS at Workplace (Male 32.2% . Female – 19.4 %); 18% of adults exposed to SHS at Public Transport (Male 22% . Female – 12.6 % WHO South-East Asia Region
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 24.2% of students were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. 38.4% of students were exposed to tobacco smoke inside enclosed public places. 18-100 years old: Male: 36.37 Female: 28.18 At work: 14.5 At home: : 26.28 13-15 years old: 35.4% live in homes where others smoke in their presence. 44.8% are around others who smoke in places outside their home. 15-64 years old: At home: Male: 21.14 Female: 27.48 Total: 24.27 At work: Male: 27.19 Female: 13.42 Total: 20.39 13- 15 years olds: 35.4% live in homes where others smoke in their presence; 44.8% are around others who smoke in places outside their home 15- 64 years olds: At home: Male: 21.14% Female: 27.48% Total: 24.27%; At work: Male: 27.19% Female: 13.42% Total: 20.39% WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Iraq SECONDHAND SMOKE  56.1% of adults (18 years old and above) were exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace.  52.8% of adults (18 years old and above) were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Answer not provided We have been conducting a survey in collaboration with the World Health Organization and John Hopkins in 2010 to measure the air quality and the proportion of passive smoking in a number of enclosed public places in Baghdad including hospitals government departments schools and educational institutions restaurants cafes and public transport. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Ireland  Overall, 16% are exposed to second–hand smoke on a daily basis  34% of smokers are exposed to second-hand smoke daily, and 10% of non-smokers exposed daily  Exposure to second-hand smoke among non-smokers is highest among those aged 15 to 24, 19% of whom are exposed to it on a daily basis.  Also, 18% of non-smokers living in the most deprived areas are exposed to second-hand smoke daily Adults: 5% of adults exposed to tobacco smoke in bars, 4% of adults exposed to tobacco smoke in restaurants and 13% of adults exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace. Source Eurobarometer 429. Fieldwork 2014, published 2015. Children : Overall 17% of children (10-17 years) are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home and 19% are exposed to tobacco smoke in cars. Source HBSC 2014. The Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2002 as amended prohibits smoking in most indoor workplaces which therefore includes public transport. In the Slán Survey 2007 respondents were asked if there were rules about smoking in their household. Over half (59%) reported that smoking was not allowed anywhere inside their home. An additional 23% stated that smoking was only allowed in their home in some places or at some times. WHO European Region
Israel Report not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO European Region
Italy according to GYTS 2014 youth (13-15 years) are expose to passive smoking in their home: 49.9% overall, 45.4% boys and 54.5% girls. according to PASSI Surveillance the smoking ban in workplaces is respected in 93% of cases in 2016 (91,4% in 2014) the smoking ban in public places is respected in 91.1% of cases in 2016 (89.7% in 2014) homes where smoking is not allowed are 81.8% in 2016 (78% in 2014) according to GYTS 2014 youth (13-15 years) are expose to passive smoking in their home: 49.9% overall, 45.4% boys and 54.5% girls. according to PASSI Surveillance the smoking ban in workplaces is respected in 91,4% of cases the smoking ban in public places is respected in 89.7% of cases the home where smoking is not allowed are 78% We observed the compliance of the smoking ban of 89.5% in public places and 91.3% in work places. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home is 24% while in presence of minors (under 15 years old) is 16% WHO European Region
Jamaica 69.5% (69.9% boys and 69.4% girls) of students, aged 13-15 years old reported people smoking in their presence one one or more days during the past seven days 40.5% of students age 13 -15 years old live in homes where others smoke in their presence and 66.5% are around others who smoke in places outside their home. 40.5% of students age 13 -15 years old live in homes where others smoke in their presence  and 66.5% are around others who smoke in places outside their home WHO Region of the Americas
Japan Prevalence of non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke was 14.5% at home, 31.3% at workplace, 39.9% at bar, café or restaurant, 24.8% on the road, 10.1% on public transport. Prevalence of both smokers and non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke was 18.7% at home, 41.2% at workplace, 43.3% at bar, café or restaurant, 16.9% on the road, 10.4% on public transport. Prevalence of non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke was 16.4% at home, 33.1% at workplace, 49.8% at bar, café or restaurant, 33.1% on the road, 12.0% on public transport. Prevalence of both smokers and non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke was 20.6% at home, 42.4% at workplace, 50.9% at bar, café or restaurant, 33.5% on the road, 12.2% on public transport. Prevalence of persons who exposed by involuntary smoke was 16.8% at home 35.7% at workplace 45.1% at bar café or restaurant. WHO Western Pacific Region
Jordan دراسة المسح العالمي لانتشار التبغ بين الشباب 2014 Current tobacco smokers, Overall 23.2 ) Boys 32.8 Girls 13.4) Current cigarette smokers, Overall 11.4 ) Boys 17.3 Girls 5.4) Frequent cigarette smokers, Overall 1.8 ) Boys 3.3 Girls 0.3) Current tobacco users, Overall 24.0 ) Boys 33.9 Girls 13.8) Ever tobacco users, Overall 45.0 (Boys 54.9 Girls 34.8) Exposed to tobacco smoke at home, Overall 60.0 (Boys 57.3 Girls 62.9) Exposed to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place, Overall, 62.4(Boys 63.0 Girls 61.7) Exposed to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place, Overall 56.2(Boys 58.8 Girls 53.3) دراسة المسح العالمي لانتشار التبغ بين الشباب 2014 Current tobacco smokers, Overall 23.2 ) Boys 32.8 Girls 13.4) Current cigarette smokers, Overall 11.4 ) Boys 17.3 Girls 5.4) Frequent cigarette smokers, Overall 1.8 ) Boys 3.3 Girls 0.3) Current tobacco users, Overall 24.0 ) Boys 33.9 Girls 13.8) Ever tobacco users, Overall 45.0 (Boys 54.9 Girls 34.8) Exposed to tobacco smoke at home, Overall 60.0 (Boys 57.3 Girls 62.9) Exposed to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place, Overall, 62.4(Boys 63.0 Girls 61.7) Exposed to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place, Overall 56.2(Boys 58.8 Girls 53.3) 53.6% rate of tobacco exposure in homes; 50.5% rate of exposure to tobacco smoke in public places WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Kazakhstan Answer not provided Report not provided The proportion of respondents exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work during the last 30 days at the time the survey was 65.0% (73.2% - 56.7% of men and - women) WHO European Region
Kenya GYTS 2013 expsoure to SHS at home 24.8% Exposure to SHS in enclosed public places 44.5% Exposure to SHS in outdoor public places 49.15 GATS 2014 Exposure to SHS at home overall 14.3%; Male 16.8%; Female 12.0% Exposure to SHS at Work Place overall 17.6%; Male 23.0%; Female 11.5% Exposure in Government buildings/Offices overall 12.5%; Male 15.2%; Female 7.9% Exposure to SHS in Health care facilities overall 8.5%; Male 10.2%; Female 7.2% Exposure to SHS in restaurants overall 21.25; Male 24.2%; Female 16.8% Exposure to SHS in public transport overall 12.4% ; Male 14.1%; 10.5% Expsoure to SHS in Bars and night clubs overall 86.1%; Male 88.2%; Female 76.1% GYTS 2013 expsoure to SHS at home 24.8% Exposure to SHS in enclosed public places 44.5% Exposure to SHS in outdoor public places 49.15 GATS 2014 Exposure to SHS at home overall 14.3%; Male 16.8%; Female 12.0% Exposure to SHS at Work Place overall 17.6%; Male 23.0%; Female 11.5% Exposure in Government buildings/Offices overall 12.5%; Male 15.2%; Female 7.9% Exposure to SHS in Health care facilities overall 8.5%; Male 10.2%; Female 7.2% Exposure to SHS in restaurants overall 21.25; Male 24.2%; Female 16.8% Exposure to SHS in public transport overall 12.4% ; Male 14.1%; 10.5% Expsoure to SHS in Bars and night clubs overall 86.1%; Male 88.2%; Female 76.1% Answer not provided WHO African Region
Kiribati Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Kuwait Exposure of 13-15 years old to tobacco smoke at home was 38.4% ( 36.3% boys, 40.3% girls) exposure to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place was 57.5% and exposssssure to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place was 52.1% Exposure of 13-15 years old to tobacco smoke at home was 38.4% ( 36.3% boys, 40.3% girls) exposure to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place was 57.5% and exposssssure to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place was 52.1% Answer not provided WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Kyrgyzstan Report not provided Подвергаются к воздействию табачного дыма 18% мужчин и 28,2% женщин - дома 36,7% мужчин и 12" женщин - на работе в возрасте 25-64 года Answer not provided WHO European Region
Lao People's Democratic Republic Exposure at workplace: 63.1% Exposure at public transport: 31% Exposure at health facilities: 11.8% Exposure at restaurants: 57.5% Answer not provided Young persons age 13-15 expose to tobacco smoke at home 36.5% and outside home 50.1% while adult expose to second hand smoke at home 75% at work place 47.7% and at public places government office 53.3% restaurant 69.6% public transportations 49.5% and health facilities 37.1%. WHO Western Pacific Region
Latvia Exposure at home Exposure at workplace (for more than 5 hours) Males Females Males Females 15-24 years:35.2% 15-24 years:33.5% 15-24 years:0.7% 15-24 years:0.9% 25-34 years:37.3% 25-34 years:27.1% 25-34 years:3.2% 25-34 years:0.3% 35-44 years:43.0% 35-44 years:25.0% 35-44 years:2.4 % 35-44 years:0.6% 45-54 years:40.9% 45-54 years:28.2% 45-54 years:3.7% 45-54 years:0.7% 55-64 years:36.2% 55-64 years:25.0% 55-64 years:4.2% 55-64 years:0.2% 65-74 years:22.2% 64-74 years:11.8 65-74 years:0.0% 65-74 years:0.0% Total: 36.9% Total:25.2% Total:2.5% Total:0.5% Total:30.7% Total:1.4% Exposure at home Exposure at workplace (for more than 5 hours) Males Females Males Females 15-24 years:40.2 % 15-24 years: 34.6% 15-24 years:1.9 % 15-24 years: 0.9% 25-34 years:42.5 % 25-34 years: 28.1% 25-34 years: 7.1% 25-34 years: 1.3% 35-44 years:43.8 % 35-44 years: 33.4 % 35-44 years:5.7 % 35-44 years:2.6 % 45-54 years: 46.2% 45-54 years: 31.3 % 45-54 years: 7.0% 45-54 years:1.1 % 55-64 years: 42.9% 55-64 years: 24.8% 55-64 years: 5.4% 55-64 years: 1.3% Total: 43.2% Total: 30.2% Total: 5.6% Total: 1.4% Total: 63.4 % Total:3.5 % Exposure at home Exposure at work (for more than 5 hours)  Male Female Male Female  15-24 years: 47.1% 15-24 years: 38.4% 15-24 years: 5.1% 15-24 years: 1.1%  25-34 years: 46.8% 25-34 years:33.5% 25-34 years: 8.2% 25-34 years: 0.7%  35-44 years: 51.1% 35-44 years:37.7% 35-44 years: 8.4% 35-44 years: 2.4%  45-54 years: 52.7% 45-54 years:36.2% 45-54 years: 5.3% 45-54 years:0.6%  55-64 years: 44.9% 55-64 years:25.8% 55-64 years: 3.1% 55-64 years: 2.6%  Total:48.5% Total:34.3% Total: 6.2% Total: 1.5%  Total: 41.2% Total: 3.8% WHO European Region
Lebanon Exposure to SHS in restaurants and cafes. Lebanese Air Monitoring Survey on Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Public Places. Study conducted in Lebanon covering 28 venues in 6 cities, with SHS levels founds to be on average in the hazardous range (>251PM2.5 microgram per m3). Results indicate that levels of indoor air pollution in public places are commonly found throughout Lebanon. Exposure to SHS in restaurants and cafes. Lebanese Air Monitoring Survey on Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Public Places. Study conducted in Lebanon covering 28 venues in 6 cities, with SHS levels founds to be on average in the hazardous range (>251PM2.5 microgram per m3). Results indicate that levels of indoor air pollution in public places are commonly found throughout Lebanon. Exposure to SHS in restaurants and cafes. Lebanese Air Monitoring Survey on Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Public Places. Study conducted in Lebanon covering 28 venues in 6 cities. with SHS levels founds to be on average in the ''hazardous'' range (>251PM2.5 microgram per m3). Results indicate that levels of indoor air pollution in public places are commonly found throughout Lebanon. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Lesotho Report not provided Report not provided Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in the workplace WHO African Region
Liberia Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Libya البيت ( ذكور 34.5 - إناث 34.0 - الجنسين 34.3 ) ( البالغين ) العمل( ذكور 55.4- إناث 14.9 - الجنسين 35.0 ) ( البالغين ) البيت ( ذكور 34.7 - إناث 36.6 - الجنسين 34.7 ) ( الشباب ) أماكن عامة ( ذكور 36.3 - إناث 33.7 - الجنسين 35.1 ) ( الشباب ) البيت ( ذكور 34.5 - إناث 34.0 - الجنسين 34.3 ) ( البالغين ) العمل( ذكور 55.4- إناث 14.9 - الجنسين 35.0 ) ( البالغين ) البيت ( ذكور 34.7 - إناث 36.6 - الجنسين 34.7 ) ( الشباب ) أماكن عامة ( ذكور 36.3 - إناث 33.7 - الجنسين 35.1 ) ( الشباب ) Home (males 34.5 - 34.0-female gender 34.3) (adults) Work (Male 55.4 - 14.9 Female - 35.0 sexes) (adults) Home (males 34.7 - 36.6-female gender 34.7) (young people) Public places (Male 36.3 - 33.7 Female - 35.1 sexes) (young people) WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Lithuania 28 % of men and 12% of women (total - 18 percent) exposed to tobacco smoke at last one hour daily at work. 23 % of men and 19% of women (total - 21 percent) exposed to tobacco smoke at home. 28 % in men and 12% in women exposed to tobacco smoke at last one the hour daily at work 19 % in men and 6% in women exposed to tobacco smoke at last one the hour daily at work WHO European Region
Luxembourg Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO European Region
Madagascar pas de différenciation de sexe, à la maison, en dehors de sa maison pas de différenciation de sexe, à la maison, en dehors de sa maison Chez les jeunes de 13à 15 ans à la maison dans des endroits publics WHO African Region
Malaysia 1. HOME In Malaysia, More than a quarter (25.9%, 95%CI: 24.6, 27.2) of non-smokers reported exposure to secondhand smoke at home. The prevalence was much higher in rural areas (36.0%, 95%CI: 33.9, 38.3) and among females at 31.3% (95%CI: 29.8, 32.8) compared to respondents in urban areas (22.9%, 95%CI: 21.47, 24.47) and among males (17.1%, 95%CI: 15.6, 18.8). For non-smokers, there was much higher exposure to secondhand smoke among other Bumiputras (33.9%, 95%CI: 30.2, 37.8) and Malays (31.0%, 95%CI: 29.1, 32.7) compared to Chinese (13.2%, 95%CI: 11.4, 15.4) and Indians (17.7%, 95%CI: 14.3, 21.7). 2. WORK PLACE More than one third (37.3%, 95%CI: 35.3, 39.2) of the respondents were exposed to secondhand smoke at work. The proportion of males exposed to secondhand smoke was almost two times higher than females (48.1%, 95%CI: 45.4, 50.9 vs 24.2%, 95%CI: 22.2, 26.4), whilst no significant differences were observed between respondents with different marital status, ethnic groups and residency. There was an inverse relationship between the exposure to secondhand smoke at work and educational attainment, whereby approximately a quarter (25.4%, 95%CI: 23.1, 27.8) of the respondents with tertiary education and almost half (43.9%; 95%CI: 31.3, 57.3) of the respondents with no formal education were exposed to secondhand smoke at work. 1. HOME In Malaysia, More than a quarter (25.9%, 95%CI: 24.6, 27.2) of non-smokers reported exposure to secondhand smoke at home. The prevalence was much higher in rural areas (36.0%, 95%CI: 33.9, 38.3) and among females at 31.3% (95%CI: 29.8, 32.8) compared to respondents in urban areas (22.9%, 95%CI: 21.47, 24.47) and among males (17.1%, 95%CI: 15.6, 18.8). For non-smokers, there was much higher exposure to secondhand smoke among other Bumiputras (33.9%, 95%CI: 30.2, 37.8) and Malays (31.0%, 95%CI: 29.1, 32.7) compared to Chinese (13.2%, 95%CI: 11.4, 15.4) and Indians (17.7%, 95%CI: 14.3, 21.7). 2. WORK PLACE More than one third (37.3%, 95%CI: 35.3, 39.2) of the respondents were exposed to secondhand smoke at work. The proportion of males exposed to secondhand smoke was almost two times higher than females (48.1%, 95%CI: 45.4, 50.9 vs 24.2%, 95%CI: 22.2, 26.4), whilst no significant differences were observed between respondents with different marital status, ethnic groups and residency. There was an inverse relationship between the exposure to secondhand smoke at work and educational attainment, whereby approximately a quarter (25.4%, 95%CI: 23.1, 27.8) of the respondents with tertiary education and almost half (43.9%; 95%CI: 31.3, 57.3) of the respondents with no formal education were exposed to secondhand smoke at work. Indoor Workplaces In Malaysia 39.8% were exposed to SHS in the workplace in the past 30 days. Looking at the non-smokers 33.9% were exposed to SHS at the workplace. Males (46.2% overall 39.1% non-smokers) were more likely than females (30.1% overall 29.8% non-smokers) to be exposed to SHS in the workplace. Residents of urban areas (41.6% overall 35.6% non-smokers) were exposed to SHS in the workplace at the higher rate than those residing in rural areas (33.1% overall 27.4 % non-smokers). Home 38.4% of adults in Malaysia (7.6% million adults) were exposed to SHS at home. Males (43.3% 4.5 million) had a higher exposure to SHS at home than females (33.3% 3.2 million). Adults living in rural areas (45.4% 2.5 million) had more exposure to SHS at home than those living in urban areas (35.7% 5.1 million). Among current non-smokers 27.9% (4.2 million non-smokers) were exposed to SHS at home. Female non-smokers (32.8% 3.1 million) were more exposed to SHS at home compared to male non-smokers (19.5% 1.1 million). Non-smokers living in rural areas (35.0% 1.5 million) had more exposure to SHS at home than those living in urban areas (25.1% 2.8 million). Public Places Prevalence of SHS exposure in public places SHS exposure rates measured in the various public places were as follows (from highest to lowest): 84.9% (84.1% non-smokers) in cafes/ coffee shops/ bistros 78.7% (70.3% non-smokers) in bars/ night clubs 71.0% (68.3% non-smokers) in restaurants 28.2% (27.9% non-smokers) in public transportation 20.0% (90.0% non-smokers) in government buildings 13.9% (14.6% non-smokers) in indoor shopping complexes 8.7% (8.6% non-smokers) in health care facilities Adults in urban areas (21.5% overall 20.5% non-smokers) who had visited government buildings had higher exposure to SHS compared rural adults (15.4% overall 14.9 non-smokers) Population exposure to SHS at various public places The population SHS exposure rates measured in the various public places were as follows (from highest to lowest): 42.9% (38.1% non-smokers) in cafes/ coffee shops/ bistros 42.1% (39.8% non-smokers) in restaurants 8.8% (9.7% non-smokers) in indoor shopping complexes 5.6% (5.9% non-smokers) in public transportation 4.9% (4.3% non-smokers) in government buildings 3.4% (3.5% non-smokers) in health care facilities 2.4% (1.3% non-smokers) in bars/ night clubs The SHS exposure rate when visiting bars/ night clubs is very high but since many adults did not go to bars/ night clubs the population exposure rate is very low. With this being said the noticeable finding was that over 40% of the entire adult population were being exposed in restaurants and cafes/ coffee shops/ bistros. In addition urban adults had higher population exposure rates than rural adults in restaurants (46.5% vs. 30.6%) bars/ night clubs (3.0% vs. 0.8%) cafes/ coffee shops/ bistros (45.6% vs. 35.8%) and indoor shopping complexes (10.1% vs. 5.6%) – all places are typically mor WHO Western Pacific Region
Maldives Home, indoor public places, outdoor public places: (Adult data-15-64 year olds) 21.3% were exposed to tobacco smoke at home on a daily basis. 17.1% were exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace during the past 30 days Home, indoor public places, outdoor public places: (Adolescent data-13-15 year olds) 34.5% live in homes where others smoke in their presence 43.0% are around others who smoke in enclosed public places 60.2% are around others who smoke in outdoor public places Home, indoor public places, outdoor public places: (Adult data-15-64 year olds) 21.3% were exposed to tobacco smoke at home on a daily basis. 17.1% were exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace during the past 30 days Home, indoor public places, outdoor public places: (Adolescent data-13-15 year olds) 34.5% live in homes where others smoke in their presence 43.0% are around others who smoke in enclosed public places 60.2% are around others who smoke in outdoor public places Answer not provided WHO South-East Asia Region
Mali Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO African Region
Malta Exposure by gender and age in the home, workplace and public places. Exposure by gender and age in the home, workplace and public transport. Exposure by gender and age in the home workplace and public transport WHO European Region
Marshall Islands 52.1% were exposed to smoke from others at home during the week preceding the survey (54.7% boys and 50.5% girls) 59.7% were exposed to smoke in public places during the week preceding the survey (60.5% boys and 60.6%girls) 52.1% were exposed to smoke from others at home during the week preceding the survey (54.7% boys and 50.5% girls) 59.7% were exposed to smoke in public places during the week preceding the survey (60.5% boys and 60.6%girls) Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Mauritania Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO African Region
Mauritius % male students (13-15yrs) : exposed at home: 30.5% exposed outside their home: 48.8% % female students (13-15yrs) : exposed at home: 328.3% exposed outside their home:43.0% % male students (13-15yrs) : exposed at home: 38.5% exposed outside their home: 77.2% % female students (13-15yrs) : exposed at home: 34.1% exposed outside their home: 70.7% 69% of students aged 13-15 years reported people smoking in their presence during last 7 days. WHO African Region
Mexico La exposición a humo de tabaco de segunda mano, entre los que trabajan en lugares interiores o en áreas cerradas, la prevalencia es de 15.2% (, entre los adultos que visitaron varios lugares públicos en los últimos 30 días, la exposición al humo de tabaco fue de 52.8% en bares y discotecas, 31.9% en los restaurantes, 26.0% en el transporte público, 25.4% en las escuelas. En los hogares, la prevalencia de exposición a humo de tabaco en la población no fumadora de 12 - 65 años corresponde a 14.1% (9.8 millones) (hombres 3.4% y mujeres 6.4%). Entre los que trabajan en lugares interiores o en áreas cerradas, el 17.0% (3.9 millones) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco ajeno en sus lugares de trabajo. Entre los adultos que visitaron varios lugares públicos en los últimos 30 días, la exposición al humo de tabaco fue de 72.7% en bares y discotecas, 42.4% en las universidades, 24.6% en los restaurantes, 24.7% en el transporte público, 14.0% en los edificios del gobierno, 13.7% en las escuelas y 5.2% en las instalaciones que prestan servicios de salud. En los hogares, aproximadamente, 12.6% de adultos de 15 años y más (11.0 millones) estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco ajeno (hombres 13.7% y mujeres 11.6%). Prevalencia de exposición a Humo de Tabaco Ambiental. Es la proporción de personas expuestas a la ingesta de la mezcla del humo que exhala el fumador (humo primario) y el humo que emana el cigarrillo encendido (humo secundario). WHO Region of the Americas
Micronesia (Federated States of) Exposure by youth at home Exposure by youth at home Exposure by male: 60.4% female: 59.6% at home workplace: 71.3% public transport: % (not available) WHO Western Pacific Region
Mongolia exposure during the last 30 days at home -40.9%, by gender -45.8% of females , for men 36% exposure at workplace 25.5%, for males-31.9%, females 19.4%, exposure at work in urban place - 32.7%, in rural place 19%, Report not provided Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Montenegro Research about smoking in the house, in closed public places, in other public places, inside of school building or around the school is conducted. Of the students that participated in the survey, 55.0% live in homes where others smoke in the last 7 days of the week and 67.5% were exposed to tobacco smoke outside home inside any enclosed public places in the last 7 days. At the same time, 63.2% were exposed around others who smoke in indoor public places. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke, 69.7% think smoking should be banned from outdoor public places. Almost two thirds of respondents (62.4%) saw someone smoking inside the school building or school setting. Girls specified more exposure to passive smoking in all smoking places. Research about smoking in the house, in closed public places, in other public places, inside of school building or around the school is conducted. Of the students that participated in the survey, 55.0% live in homes where others smoke in the last 7 days of the week and 67.5% were exposed to tobacco smoke outside home inside any enclosed public places in the last 7 days. At the same time, 63.2% were exposed around others who smoke in indoor public places. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke, 69.7% think smoking should be banned from outdoor public places. Almost two thirds of respondents (62.4%) saw someone smoking inside the school building or school setting. Girls specified more exposure to passive smoking in all smoking places. Exposure at home in the workplace exposure in public indoor spaces WHO European Region
Myanmar Total - 39.1 %, Male - 32.1%, Female - 46.0% (Exposure tobacco smoke at home) Total - 27.5 %, Male - 31.8%, Female - 23.6% (Exposure tobacco smoke at work place) Total - 39.1 %, Male - 32.1%, Female - 46.0% (Exposure tobacco smoke at home) Total - 27.5 %, Male - 31.8%, Female - 23.6% (Exposure tobacco smoke at work place) Total- 54.69% Male – 53.15% Female – 55.66% (exposure to tobacco smoke at home) Total- 39.05% Male – 48.39% Female – 33.23% (exposure to tobacco smoke in the work place WHO South-East Asia Region
Namibia Report not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Nauru Report not provided Percentage of students who reported people smoked in their presence on one or more days during the past seven days Boys 13-17 years: 54.3% Girls 13-17 years: 68.7% Total 13-17 years: 61.8% Report not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Nepal At Home: Age Men Women Both Sexes 15-29 years 38.4% 34.5% 36.4% 30-44 years 34.9% 34.2% 34.5% 45-69 years 37.9% 36.7% 37.3% 15-69 years 37.3% 35.0% 36.1% In the Workplace: Age Men Women Both Sexes 15-29 years 42.9% 28.4% 35.5% 30-44 years 44.6% 32.8% 38.4% 45-69 years 43.1% 34.8% 39.0% 15-69 years 43.4% 31.3% 37.2% Report not provided At Home: Age Men Women Both Sexes 15-29 years 38.4% 34.5% 36.4% 30-44 years 34.9% 34.2% 34.5% 45-69 years 37.9% 36.7% 37.3% 15-69 years 37.3% 35.0% 36.1% In the Workplace: Age Men Women Both Sexes 15-29 years 42.9% 28.4% 35.5% 30-44 years 44.6% 32.8% 38.4% 45-69 years 43.1% 34.8% 39.0% 15-69 years 43.4% 31.3% 37.2% WHO South-East Asia Region
Netherlands 18% of non-smoking adults (18+) are daily exposed inside to tobacco smoke of others. Of them, 29% are exposed for one hour or more. Among adult men, 19% are exposed; among women, this is 16%. 19% of all parents with children younger than 18 years old smokes sometimes inside the house. 11% smokes in the company of their youngest child. 22% of all Dutch citizens is bothered by tobacco smoke, especially outside. Rough estimates of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure in the Netherlands 2008 Exposed group/Range of ETS exposure (%) Adults (per day)/18-40 Pregnant women/> 14 Foetuses (exposed by smoking mother)/> 7 Children (0-4 years)/20-36 Children (8 years)/>26 WHO European Region
New Zealand At home (and in private cars) - by gender, age group, ethnic group and socioeconomic group. Smoking in indoor workplaces and on public transport in prohibited. At home (and in private cars) - by gender, age group, ethnic group and socioeconomic group. Smoking in indoor workplaces and on public transport in prohibited. NZ Tobacco Use Survey 2009 found that 6.4 per cent of non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke in their home in the past week; 6.1 per cent of non-smoking adults were exposed to second-hand smoke in the car they usually travel in during the last week; and 4.5 per cent on non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke indoors at their workplace in the past month. No more recent data is available. For more details see http://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/tobacco-use-nz-key-findings-2009-survey_0.pdf pp 91 - 104 WHO Western Pacific Region
Nicaragua Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Niger Report not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Nigeria Exposure at work place: Overall 17.3%; Male 21.1%; Female 12.0% Exposure at home: Overall 6.6%; Male 7.7%; Female 5.6% Exposure at restaurants in the past 30 days: Overall 29.3%; Male 29.4%; Female 29.2% Exposure at work place: Overall 17.3%; Male 21.1%; Female 12.0% Exposure at home: Overall 6.6%; Male 7.7%; Female 5.6% Exposure at restaurants in the past 30 days: Overall 29.3%; Male 29.4%; Female 29.2% Exposure at work place: Overall 17.3%; Male 21.1% ; Female 12.0% Exposure at home: Overall 6.6%; Male 7.7%; Female 5.6% Exposure at restaurants in the past 30 days: Overall 29.3%; Male 29.4%; Female 29.2% WHO African Region
Niue Report not provided Report not provided Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Norway How many hours daily respondents spend in a home where someone smokes (survey from 2014). Among men who did not smoke, 1.5% answered that they spent at least 1 hour in a home where someone smokes. Among women the figure was 0.6%. In a survey from 2017, 1.7%/1.8% among men/women who did not smoke answered that they spent 1 hour or more a day in a room related to their workplace where other people smoked. How many hours daily respondents spend in a home where someone smokes. Among male non-smokers, 1.5% answered that they spent at least 1 hour in a home where someone smokes. Among women the figure was 0.6%. Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at home: 90 % Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace. 94 % Data can be split on gender education age. - Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at home: Men 90% Women 90% - Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace. Men 93% Women 96% - Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at home: Low education: 77% middle education: 91% high education: 94% - Are never exposed to tobacco smoke at workplace: Low education: 94% middle education: 94% high education: 98% WHO European Region
Oman في المنزل الأولاد 12.8 البنات 11.2 المجموع 11.9 خارج المنزل في اماكن مغلقة الأولاد 32.4 البنات 31.7 المجموع 32 في المنزل الأولاد 12.9 البنات 10.9 المجموع 11.9 المنزل الأولاد 12.9 البنات 10.9 المجموع 11.9 خارج المنزل الأولاد 19.2 البنات 11.9 المجموع 15.0 At home: Boys 12.9%; Girls 10.9%; Total 11.9% Outside the home: Boys 19.2%; Girls 11.9%; Total: 15.0% WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Pakistan Adults exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace: 69.1% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke at home at least monthly: 48.3% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in restaurants: 86.0% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in marriage halls: 65.7% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in health care facilities: 37.6% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke on public transportation: 76.2% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace: 69.1% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke at home at least monthly: 48.3% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in restaurants: 86.0% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in marriage halls: 65.7% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke in health care facilities: 37.6% Adults exposed to tobacco smoke on public transportation: 76.2% Overall 39 percent of households are exposed daily to SHS WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Palau Over one-quarter (26.1%) of all adults in the Palau reported some sort of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in a vehicle, or at work in the past 7 days. The most common place of second-hand smoke exposure was at work (14.9%), although over 10% of adults reported second-hand smoke exposure at home and in a vehicle. Adults exposed to ETS 1 or more days in the past 7 days at HOME: Men: 34.4%, Women: 32.1%, Both: 33.5%/ Adults exposed to ETS 1 or more days in the past 7 days at WORK: Men: 35.7%, Women: 12.8%, Both: 27.1% Adults exposed to ETS 1 or more days in the past 7 days at HOME:  Men: 34.4% Women: 32.1% Both: 33.5%/ Adults exposed to ETS 1 or more days in the past 7 days at WORK: Men: 35.7% Women: 12.8% Both: 27.1% WHO Western Pacific Region
Panama INFORMACION COMPLEMENTARIA - DOCUMENTO POWER POINT: AMBIENTES LIBRES DE HUMO PANAMA. http://www.gorgas.gob.pa/SitioWebTabaco/Documentos.htm Exposición al Humo de Tabaco Ajeno. Tomado del Informe de la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaco en Jóvenes, 2017. RESUMEN: El 16.7% de los estudiantes estuvieron expuestos a humo de tabaco de segunda mano en el hogar, en tanto que cerca de 3 de 10 (31.7%) estuvo expuesto a humo de tabaco de segunda mano en espacios públicos cerrados. En ambos indicadores se reportaron descensos con respecto a los hallazgos de la GYTS 2012. En casa: Un 83.3% de los entrevistados indicó que en los últimos 7 días no habían fumado en su casa en su presencia ningún día siendo que el 16.7% estuvo expuesto (chicos: 16.5%, chicas:17.2%). En Lugares Públicos Cerrados (por ejemplo: escuela, tiendas, restaurantes, centros comerciales, cines, teatros u otros): Cerca de 3 de cada 10 jóvenes entrevistados (31.7%) manifestó haber estado expuesto al HTA en lo últimos 7 días, en espacios públicos cerrados (Chicos=29.4%; chicas=34%), siendo las chicas las mayormente expuestas. En Lugares Públicos Abiertos Cuatro de cada 10 jóvenes (35.1%) manifestó haber estado expuesto al humo de tabaco de segunda mano en lugares públicos abiertos (Chicos=32.9%; chicas=37.2%), siendo las mujeres las mayormente expuestas. La exposición al humo de tabaco en los últimos 7 días fue ligeramente mayor en espacios públicos abiertos que en los cerrados. En el Interior de los edificios escolares o en el área exterior propiedad de la escuela: El 28.9% de los entrevistados manifestó haber visto, en los últimos 30 días, a alguien fumando en áreas interiores de edificios escolares o en áreas exteriores propiedad de la escuela (Chicos=28.8%; chicas=28.8%), sin diferencias estadísticamente entre chicos y chicas. Es decir, que cerca de siete de cada 10 (71.1%) de los jóvenes entrevistados indicó que nunca ve a nadie fumando en la escuela. Por su parte, en la EMTJ, en lo que se refiere a la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM), ha reportado un descenso progresivo de la exposición al humo de tabaco en los hogares durante los 4 años de realización del estudio (2002,2008,2012 y 2017). De igual forma, cada vez menos jóvenes están expuestos (HTSM) fuera de su casa, aunque el 35.1% reporta haber estado expuesto fuera de su casa a pesar de la prohibición de fumar en ambientes cerrados, lo que nos lleva a reflexionar sobre la necesidad de prohibir el consumo de tabaco en algunos espacios abiertos donde aún se puede fumar y de reforzar la vigilancia del cumplimiento del artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008. El estudio de Mercado de Productos de Tabaco realizado en el año 2017 reveló que el 92.1% de los dueños de locales de atención al público están a favor de la Ley 13 de 2008 y sus reglamentaciones. El porcentaje se ha mantenido con respecto al año 2014. Fuente: Encuesta de mercado de productos de tabaco en los distritos de Panamá, Colón, David, Barú, San Miguelito y las Comarcas de Guna Yala y Ngäbe-Buglé. Panamá, 2017. http://www.gorgas.gob.pa/SitioWebTabaco/Inicio.htm MEDICIÓN DE PM 2.5 EN LA VIGILANCIA Y CONTROL DE AMBIENTES LIBRES DE HUMO DE TABACO (ALHT). AÑO:2017 La vigilancia y control del cumplimiento de la Ley 13 del 24 de enero de 2008, sobre control de tabaco en Panamá la realiza el MINSA, mediante inspecciones programadas, atención de denuncias y operativos especiales. Desde el 2013, como parte de la vigilancia de “Ambientes Libres de Humo de Tabaco” se incluye la medición PM 2.5 en ambientes cerrados de interés sanitario, para detectar contaminación debido al uso de tabaco donde está prohibido fumar. La medición del nivel de partículas finas PM 2.5 se utiliza como marcador de humo de tabaco ambiental (Archivos de Bronconeumología Volumen 47,I Abril 2011 ), en los locales que han sido denunciados y es un método, utilizado por el Ministerio de Salud de Panamá, para comprobar el incumplimiento de la ley 13 del 24 de enero del 2008 Las PM 2.5 consiste en miles de partículas microscópicas inferior o igual a los 2.5 micrómetros, 100 veces más pequeño que el grueso de un cabello humano, producidos por la combustión de productos de tabaco entre otros contaminantes (Revista Ecologistas en Acción N°58 año 2010). Estás partículas pueden penetrar profundamente en los pulmones, albergándose en los alveolos donde se dividen y pasan al torrente sanguíneo. Pudiendo causar graves trastornos cardiovasculares y respiratorios, en particular coronariopatías y cáncer de pulmón (USEPA, 2013). Se realizaron 218 mediciones por quejas, de las cuales el 46.3%, no cumplen con las disposiciones del artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008, las normas de calidad de aire de USEPA y de las directrices de la OMS. La clasificación como detección moderada de partículas PM2.5 alcanzó un 27.5% del total estudiado, en tanto que en 18.8% las cifras detectadas eran de 35.5 ug/m3 o más. El 53.7% de las mediciones reportaron valores permisibles, de los que el 21.1% alcanzó valores entre 0 y 12 ug/m3. En el 2.3% de los sitios investigados se percibió olor a tabaco, no hubo reporte de colillas, ni de fumadores. En ambientes exteriores a los puntos de medición, el 6.9% (15 sitios) reportó la presencia de colillas (115 colillas) y en 2.3% se notó la presencia de fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca de 1 de cada 2 (53.7%) quejas presentadas se identificaron valores de partículas PM 2.5 dentro de parámetros permisibles. La atención de las quejas sobre ALHT contó con evidencias técnicas determinadas por la medición de las partículas PM 2.5, permitiendo valorar el cumplimiento o no del artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008.   El uso de las mediciones de partículas PM 2.5 permite al Ministerio de Salud, tipificar más objetivamente las infracciones sobre ALHT y por tanto, sustentar mejor las sanciones que se apliquen.   En general, el uso del Sidepak ha fortalecido la vigilancia y control de los ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en Panamá. El registro estructurado de las mediciones de partículas PM 2.5 relacionado con los ALHT, en base de datos contribuye con las estadísticas requeridas para el mapeo de calidad de aire interior en el territorio nacional.  EXPOSICIÓN AL HUMO DE TABACO AJENO. TOMADO DE LA ENCUESTA DE TABACO EN ADULTOS (EMTA – GATS) PANAMA, 2013 Respecto de la exposición al humo de segunda mano en el lugar de trabajo, es de mencionar que todos los individuos fumadores y no fumadores, reflejan una prevalencia de exposición del humo de tabaco de 5.6% (4.2-7.5), siendo para los hombres de 7,4% (5.1-10,6) y para las mujeres de 3.7% (2.4-5.7). Estos resultados son similares a los observados entre los no fumadores. Esta situación refleja un alto porcentaje de cumplimiento de las prohibiciones de fumar en espacios laborales cerrados. Con relación a la exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar, por condición de fumador la prevalencia general fue de 4,4% (3,7-5,2), de 5,3% (4,1-6,8) en los hombres y 3,5% (2,9-4,3) en las mujeres, indicando una baja prevalencia de exposición en el hogar y en principio una mayor presión del grupo familiar o conciencia del fumador sobre los efectos del humo de segunda mano. De la población adulta expuesta al humo de tabaco en los lugares públicos en los últimos 30 días, la prevalencia es más alta en las terminales de transporte, con el 15,3% (13,8-17,1), restaurantes con 5,9% (4,9-7,0) y en el transporte público con 5,0% (4,2-6,0), bares y clubs nocturnos con 8,0% (6,9-9,4), áreas comunes de edificios, 14,8% (12,5-17,5) y de 8,8% (6,5-11,7) facilidades deportivas, situación que refleja los ambientes con mayores problemas en el cumplimiento de las prohibiciones de fumar, estos hallazgos llevan implícita la necesidad de fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia y control que adelantan las regiones de salud del Ministerio de Salud. El análisis por área refleja que las terminales de transporte urbanas son las que concentran el mayor porcentaje de reportes de exposición al humo de tabaco, situación similar se refleja con el resto de los espacios investigados (áreas comunes de edificios públicos, bares, clubes nocturnos, casinos y similares, restaurantes), exceptuando esta percepción las facilidades deportivas en las áreas rurales. Sin embargo, con relación a las terminales de transporte, las mismas suelen ser áreas abiertas, muchas de las cuales son informales y en algunos casos sin estructuras adecuadas, lo que dificulta la vigilancia sobre todo en las del transporte colectivo. Con relación a las universidades, las mismas están ubicadas en campus abiertos con facilidades de acceso amplio que dificulta el poder realizar una labor de vigilancia efectiva. En las áreas comunes de edificios una dificultad manifiesta es que son áreas privadas, con entrada restringida, que requiere de mayor concienciación de las asociaciones de residentes para el cumplimiento de la ley, al igual que con relación a facilidades deportivas privadas. Con relación a las reglas en el hogar respecto al fumar, el 84,6% (83,3-85,8) indicó que nunca es permitido; el 2,6% (2,1-3,3) manifestó que es permitido en 2,6% y no permitido pero con excepciones fue reportado por el 7,5% (6,7-8,3) de la población. Es interesante destacar que entre los no fumadores no es permitido en el 86,5% (85,3-87,6) y con relación a los fumadores 55,5% (47,6-63,2). Ello conlleva a considerar que en el hogar existe una mayor sensibilidad en cuanto a proteger el entorno familiar del humo de tabaco de segunda mano. Las reglas de fumar en el lugar de trabajo tienen un alto cumplimiento, al observarse que en el 93,5% no se permite fumar en ningún lugar interior. Igual también el porcentaje es alto entre los fumadores 90,5%(91,8-95,0) y los no fumadores 93,8% (92,0-95,2) Con la sanción y entrada en vigencia de la Ley 13 de 2008, se establece la prohibición de fumar ambientes laborales cerrados, en áreas comunes de edificios públicos y privados de uso comercial y doméstico, lugares públicos donde haya concurrencia de personas, ambientes públicos y privados, abiertos y cerrados, destinados a actividades deportivas. Los gerentes o encargados de los establecimientos son responsables de hacer cumplir la medida y podrán ser auxiliados por la Policía Nacional. Los resultados de la EMTA nos permiten indicar que el grado de protección contra el humo de tabaco de segunda mano supera el 90% al considerar el hogar, los lugares de trabajo, las oficinas y edificios de gobierno, los centros de facilidades médicas y el transporte público, excepto en restaurantes donde alcanza el cerca del 88%. Esto demuestra que el fumador está fumando más en la casa. Lo cual es consono con la prevalencia general de consumo de productos fumados de tabaco, que se reportó en estudio en un 6.1%; lo que evidencia el cumplimiento de las medidas de control aplicables a los espacios abiertos y cerrados, tipificados en la Ley 13 de 2008. También hace suponer que las personas tienen una respuesta más precisa y concreta cuando se habla del hogar y del lugar de trabajo que con relación a las áreas públicas. La ENSCAVI en el 2007 indicó que la percepción de los entrevistados sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar fue de 19.3%, en el hogar de 11.4% y en los ambientes recreativos de 24.3%, durante este estudio se permitían espacios para fumadores y no fumadores en los lugares de trabajo y áreas recreativas. La EMTA permite identificar más ampliamente el grado de exposición percibida por la población panameña, o que refleja niveles de exposición significativamente menores. En la Encuesta de Prevalencia de Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovascular, PREFREC, 2010 realizada a población de 18 años y más se entrevistaron 3590 personas residentes en las provincias de Panamá y Colón, siendo 1074 hombres y 2516 mujeres. Las provincias antes mencionadas albergan cerca del 60% de la población panameña con 18 años y más y concentran el mayor porcentaje de establecimientos de interés de control definidos en el artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008, referente a espacios 100% libres de humo de tabaco. Esta población a fines de la atención sanitaria está distribuida en 5 regiones de salud que son la de Panamá Este (n=667), Panamá Oeste (n=555), Metropolitana de Salud (n=813), San Miguelito (n=524) y Colón (n=1031). Este estudio indagó sobre la percepción de la población de 18 años y más con respecto a la exposición al humo de productos de tabaco en los últimos 30 días encontrándose que: • en casa: de los 3590 entrevistados, el 22.3% (799) manifestó que sí habían fumado en su presencia en su casa. • en el trabajo: el 87.4% reportó que no habían fumado en su presencia en el área laboral, mientras que el 1.1% (39) no especificó su respuesta. • centros recreativos: cerca de ocho de cada 10 entrevistados (83.9%) indicó que no habían fumado en su presencia en centros recreativos en los últimos 30 días, en tanto que el 1.1% (40) no especificó su respuesta. MAYORES DETALLES EN LOS INFORMES DE GYTS Y GATS PANAMA. DOCUMENTO POWER POINT SOBRE MEDICIONES DE PARTICULAS 2.5 ACTUALMENTE ESTAMOS EN LA FASE DE PROCESAMIENTO DE LOS DATOS DE LA GYTS 2017 POR LO QUE MAYORES DETALLES PODRÁN SER ENCONTRADOS A FUTURO EN LA PAGINA WEB REFERENCIADA PREVIAMENTE. INFORMACION COMPLEMENTARIA - DOCUMENTO POWER POINT: AMBIENTES LIBRES DE HUMO PANAMA. http://www.gorgas.gob.pa/SitioWebTabaco/Documentos.htm Exposición al Humo de Tabaco Ajeno. Tomado del Informe de la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaco en Jóvenes, 2012. RESUMEN: El 17.5% de los estudiantes estuvieron expuestos a humo de tabaco de segunda mano en el hogar, en tanto que cerca de 3 de 10 (35.2%) estuvo expuesto a humo de tabaco de segunda mano en espacios públicos cerrados. 4.3.1 En casa Un 82.3% de los entrevistados indicó que en los últimos 7 días no habían fumado en su casa en su presencia ningún día (chicos=81.6%, chicas=82.8%) sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo, pero si entre los jóvenes de 15 años con respecto a los de 13 y 14 años. Cerca de 1 de cada 10 (9.5%) jóvenes indicaron que fumaron en su presencia 1 o 2 días (chicos=10.5%, chicas=8.6%). El 2.2% manifestó exposición durante 3 a 4 días; 1.5% indicó exposición durante 4 a 5 días, y el 4.5% reportó exposición al humo de tabaco ajeno durante los 7 días antes de su participación en este estudio (chicos=4.2%, chicas=4.8%), sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y edad. Un 82.3% de los entrevistados indicó que en los últimos 7 días no habían fumado en su casa en su presencia ningún día (chicos=81.6, chicas=82.8%) sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo, pero si entre los jóvenes de 15 años con respecto a los de 13 y 14 años. Cerca de 1 de cada 10 (9.5%) jóvenes indicaron que fumaron en su presencia 1 o 2 días (chicos=10.5%, chicas=8.6%). El 2.2% manifestó exposición durante 3 a 4 días; 1.5% indicó exposición durante 4 a 5 días, y el 4.5% reportó exposición al humo de tabaco ajeno durante los 7 días antes de su participación en este estudio (chicos=4.2%, chicas=4.8%), sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y edad. Con ello se puede concluir que la exposición al humo de tabaco ajeno en sus casas afecto al 17.7% de los jóvenes de 13 a 15 años entrevistados (Chicos=18.4%; chicas=17.2%), sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo, resultaron más expuestos los jóvenes de 15 años, reflejándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas de este grupo con respecto a los de 13 y 14 años 4.3.2 Familiares u otras personas que fuman dentro del hogar Al investigar sobre la frecuencia con que ve a su padre (padrastro o pareja de la madre) fumando en su casa, el 35.6% de los entrevistados indicó que no tienen esa figura paterna (padre o padrastro). El 3.7% manifestó que todos los días, un 7.1% que algunas veces y 53.6% que nunca, en ningún caso se registraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y edad. En el caso de la madre (madrastra o pareja del padre) uno de cada 3 entrevistados (33.4%) indicó que no cuenta con esa figura en su casa. El 2.5% (chicos=3.2%, chicas=1.9%) indicaron que todos los días los ven fumando en el hogar, hallazgo que reflejó diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre chicos y chicas y entre los jóvenes de 14 y 15 años. El 3.1% comentó que en algunos casos ven esta figura fumando en el hogar (chicos=3.2%, chicas=3.1%). Seis de cada 10 (60.9%) de los entrevistados manifestó que nunca la figura materna fuma en el hogar (chicos=59.4%, chicas=62.2%), con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre chicos y chicas y entre los jóvenes de 13 y 15 años. Cerca de 3 de cada 10 entrevistados (28.7%) no tiene hermanos o hermanas (chicos=31.0, chicas=26.6) con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre chicos y chicas, pero no por edad. El 7.4% ve a su hermano (a) fumando en el hogar siempre o a veces siendo mayor el porcentaje de los que lo ven a veces con 5.6%. Un 63.9% nunca ve a sus hermanos (as) fumando en el hogar (chicos=62.0, chicas=65.8) pregunta que permitió estimar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre chicos y chicas. Cerca de 1 de cada 4 entrevistados manifestó ver a otras personas fumando en el hogar siempre o a veces, el mayor porcentaje reportado se ubicó entre los que indicaron a veces con un 17.9%, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo. Uno de cada dos jóvenes reporto que nunca ve personas fumando en su casa (chicos=48.3, chicas=50.8) no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y edad. 4.3.3 Lugares públicos cerrados (por ejemplo: escuela, tiendas, restaurantes, centros comerciales, cines, teatros u otros) Cerca de 2 de cada 6 jóvenes entrevistados (35.2%) manifestó haber estado expuesto al HTA en lo últimos 7 días, en espacios públicos cerrados (Chicos=32.0%; chicas=37.9%), siendo las mujeres las mayormente expuestas, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por edad. El 64.8% indicó que nunca ve a nadie fumando en lugares públicos cerrados con un diferencial hombre – mujer de 68.0% y 62.1%, respectivamente, estimándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y entre los jóvenes de 13 años con respecto a los de 14 y 15 años, ya que el mayor porcentaje de jóvenes que reportó no haber estado expuesto al HTA en espacios cerrados en los últimos 7 días fue el de 13 años, con 71.6%. 4.3.4 Días de exposición al HTA en lugares públicos cerrados Cerca de 6 de cada 10 jóvenes entrevistados (64.8%) manifestaron no haber estado expuestos al humo de tabaco de segunda mano en lugares públicos, donde más chicos que chicas reportaron no haber estado expuestos. Dos de cada 10 indicaron haber estado expuestos entre 1 y 2 días, más chicas que chicos reportaron haber estado expuestas. En ambos casos se estimaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo. El 7.3% de los entrevistados indicaron exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano, en lugares públicos en los últimos 7 días, todos los días, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo. 4.3.5 Lugares públicos abiertos Cuatro de cada 10 jóvenes (35.2%) manifestó haber estado expuesto al humo de tabaco de segunda mano en lugares públicos abiertos (Chicos=37.8%; chicas=41.6%), siendo las mujeres las mayormente expuestas, aunque sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo, pero sí entre los jóvenes de 13 y 15 años; de 13 y 14 años y de 14 y 15 años. La exposición al humo de tabaco en los últimos 7 días fue mayor en espacios públicos abiertos que en los cerrados, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas globalmente, entre los chicos de ambos grupos, no así entre las chicas. En tanto que el 6 de cada 10 jóvenes entrevistados indicó que nunca vio a nadie fumando en lugares públicos abiertos con un diferencial hombre – mujer de 62.2% y 58.4%, respectivamente, estimándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas por edad, no así por sexo. 4.3.6 Transporte público por ejemplo autobuses, taxis o trenes de pasajeros Cerca de tres de cada 10 (31.1%) estudiantes entrevistados no utilizaron transporte público en los 7 días antes de la entrevista (chicos=32.8%, chicas=29.7%). Un 61.1% usó transporte público pero no vio a nadie fumando en el interior del mismo (chicos=59.5%, chicas=63.4%), lo que indica que cerca de 9 de cada 10 (92.7%) estudiantes no vieron a alguien fumar en el transporte público y que un 7.3% de los estudiantes estuvieron expuestos al humo de tabaco de segunda mano en el transporte público de los que 4.2% reportó exposición por 1 o 2 días. 4.3.7 En el Interior de los edificios escolares o en el área exterior propiedad de la escuela. El 27.9% de los entrevistados manifestó haber visto, en los últimos 30 días, a alguien fumando en áreas interiores de edificios escolares o en áreas exteriores propiedad de la escuela (Chicos=29.4%; chicas=26.4%), con diferencias estadísticamente entre chicos y chicas, siendo los chicos quienes observaron este comportamiento; así como entre los jóvenes de 13 años con respecto a los otros dos grupos de estudiantes. Cerca de siete de cada 10 (72.1%) de los jóvenes entrevistados indicó que nunca ve a nadie fumando en la escuela con un diferencial hombre – mujer de 70.6% y 73.6%, respectivamente, estimándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo y edad. EXPOSICIÓN AL HUMO DE TABACO AJENO. TOMADO DE LA ENCUESTA DE TABACO EN ADULTOS (EMTA – GATS) PANAMA, 2013 Respecto de la exposición al humo de segunda mano en el lugar de trabajo, es de mencionar que todos los individuos fumadores y no fumadores, reflejan una prevalencia de exposición del humo de tabaco de 5.6% (4.2-7.5), siendo para los hombres de 7,4% (5.1-10,6) y para las mujeres de 3.7% (2.4-5.7). Estos resultados son similares a los observados entre los no fumadores. Esta situación refleja un alto porcentaje de cumplimiento de las prohibiciones de fumar en espacios laborales cerrados. Con relación a la exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar, por condición de fumador la prevalencia general fue de 4,4% (3,7-5,2), de 5,3% (4,1-6,8) en los hombres y 3,5% (2,9-4,3) en las mujeres, indicando una baja prevalencia de exposición en el hogar y en principio una mayor presión del grupo familiar o conciencia del fumador sobre los efectos del humo de segunda mano. De la población adulta expuesta al humo de tabaco en los lugares públicos en los últimos 30 días, la prevalencia es más alta en las terminales de transporte, con el 15,3% (13,8-17,1), restaurantes con 5,9% (4,9-7,0) y en el transporte público con 5,0% (4,2-6,0), bares y clubs nocturnos con 8,0% (6,9-9,4), áreas comunes de edificios, 14,8% (12,5-17,5) y de 8,8% (6,5-11,7) facilidades deportivas, situación que refleja los ambientes con mayores problemas en el cumplimiento de las prohibiciones de fumar, estos hallazgos llevan implícita la necesidad de fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia y control que adelantan las regiones de salud del Ministerio de Salud. El análisis por área refleja que las terminales de transporte urbanas son las que concentran el mayor porcentaje de reportes de exposición al humo de tabaco, situación similar se refleja con el resto de los espacios investigados (áreas comunes de edificios públicos, bares, clubes nocturnos, casinos y similares, restaurantes), exceptuando esta percepción las facilidades deportivas en las áreas rurales. Sin embargo, con relación a las terminales de transporte, las mismas suelen ser áreas abiertas, muchas de las cuales son informales y en algunos casos sin estructuras adecuadas, lo que dificulta la vigilancia sobre todo en las del transporte colectivo. Con relación a las universidades, las mismas están ubicadas en campus abiertos con facilidades de acceso amplio que dificulta el poder realizar una labor de vigilancia efectiva. En las áreas comunes de edificios una dificultad manifiesta es que son áreas privadas, con entrada restringida, que requiere de mayor concienciación de las asociaciones de residentes para el cumplimiento de la ley, al igual que con relación a facilidades deportivas privadas. Con relación a las reglas en el hogar respecto al fumar, el 84,6% (83,3-85,8) indicó que nunca es permitido; el 2,6% (2,1-3,3) manifestó que es permitido en 2,6% y no permitido pero con excepciones fue reportado por el 7,5% (6,7-8,3) de la población. Es interesante destacar que entre los no fumadores no es permitido en el 86,5% (85,3-87,6) y con relación a los fumadores 55,5% (47,6-63,2). Ello conlleva a considerar que en el hogar existe una mayor sensibilidad en cuanto a proteger el entorno familiar del humo de tabaco de segunda mano. Las reglas de fumar en el lugar de trabajo tienen un alto cumplimiento, al observarse que en el 93,5% no se permite fumar en ningún lugar interior. Igual también el porcentaje es alto entre los fumadores 90,5%(91,8-95,0) y los no fumadores 93,8% (92,0-95,2) Con la sanción y entrada en vigencia de la Ley 13 de 2008, se establece la prohibición de fumar ambientes laborales cerrados, en áreas comunes de edificios públicos y privados de uso comercial y doméstico, lugares públicos donde haya concurrencia de personas, ambientes públicos y privados, abiertos y cerrados, destinados a actividades deportivas. Los gerentes o encargados de los establecimientos son responsables de hacer cumplir la medida y podrán ser auxiliados por la Policía Nacional. Los resultados de la EMTA nos permiten indicar que el grado de protección contra el humo de tabaco de segunda mano supera el 90% al considerar el hogar, los lugares de trabajo, las oficinas y edificios de gobierno, los centros de facilidades médicas y el transporte público, excepto en restaurantes donde alcanza el cerca del 88%. Esto demuestra que el fumador está fumando más en la casa. Lo cual es consono con la prevalencia general de consumo de productos fumados de tabaco, que se reportó en estudio en un 6.1%; lo que evidencia el cumplimiento de las medidas de control aplicables a los espacios abiertos y cerrados, tipificados en la Ley 13 de 2008. También hace suponer que las personas tienen una respuesta más precisa y concreta cuando se habla del hogar y del lugar de trabajo que con relación a las áreas públicas. La ENSCAVI en el 2007 indicó que la percepción de los entrevistados sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar fue de 19.3%, en el hogar de 11.4% y en los ambientes recreativos de 24.3%, durante este estudio se permitían espacios para fumadores y no fumadores en los lugares de trabajo y áreas recreativas. La EMTA permite identificar más ampliamente el grado de exposición percibida por la población panameña, o que refleja niveles de exposición significativamente menores. En la Encuesta de Prevalencia de Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovascular, PREFREC, 2010 realizada a población de 18 años y más se entrevistaron 3590 personas residentes en las provincias de Panamá y Colón, siendo 1074 hombres y 2516 mujeres. Las provincias antes mencionadas albergan cerca del 60% de la población panameña con 18 años y más y concentran el mayor porcentaje de establecimientos de interés de control definidos en el artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008, referente a espacios 100% libres de humo de tabaco. Esta población a fines de la atención sanitaria está distribuida en 5 regiones de salud que son la de Panamá Este (n=667), Panamá Oeste (n=555), Metropolitana de Salud (n=813), San Miguelito (n=524) y Colón (n=1031). Este estudio indagó sobre la percepción de la población de 18 años y más con respecto a la exposición al humo de productos de tabaco en los últimos 30 días encontrándose que: • en casa: de los 3590 entrevistados, el 22.3% (799) manifestó que sí habían fumado en su presencia en su casa. • en el trabajo: el 87.4% reportó que no habían fumado en su presencia en el área laboral, mientras que el 1.1% (39) no especificó su respuesta. • centros recreativos: cerca de ocho de cada 10 entrevistados (83.9%) indicó que no habían fumado en su presencia en centros recreativos en los últimos 30 días, en tanto que el 1.1% (40) no especificó su respuesta. Por su parte, en la EMTJ, en lo que se refiere a la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM), ha reportado un descenso progresivo de la exposición al humo de tabaco en los hogares de 21.4 puntos porcentuales al comparar las cifras de 2002 con el 2012. De igual forma, cada vez menos jóvenes están expuestos (HTSM) fuera de su casa, aunque el 35.1% reporta haber estado expuesto fuera de su casa a pesar de la prohibición de fumar en ambientes cerrados, lo que nos lleva a reflexionar sobre la necesidad de prohibir el consumo de tabaco en algunos espacios abiertos donde aún se puede fumar y de reforzar la vigilancia del cumplimiento del artículo 5 de la Ley 13 de 2008. Recientemente, el ICGES realizó una encuesta financiada por el IDRC en la cual el 92% de los gerentes, dueños o administradores de sitios de hostelería están de acuerdo con las disposiciones de ambientes libres de humo que establece la Ley 13 de 2008. MAYORES DETALLES EN LOS INFORMES DE GYTS Y GATS PANAMA. Más detalles en los informes técnicos de la EMTA – 2013 y de la EMTJ-2012 por publicar en el transcurso del I semestre de 2014 WHO Region of the Americas
Papua New Guinea 57.5% are exposed to smoking at home-56.9& males and 57.8% females 73.4% are exposed to smoking inside enclosed public places-72.5% males and 73.5% females 72.9% are exposed to smoking at outdoor public places-73.8% males and 72.3% females 70.6% saw persons smoking inside the school building and outside on school property 51.4% definitely thought other peoples smoking is harmful-52.1% males and 57% females 73.9% live in homes where others smoke in their presence 86.4% are around others who smoke in places outside their home 52.0% think smoking should be banned from public places 51.9% think smoke from others is harmful to them 36.4% have one or more parents who smoke 20.1% have most or all friends who smoke 73.9% - at home 86.4% - outside of home 52% - in public places WHO Western Pacific Region
Paraguay En el hogar: Masculino: 4.0% Femenino: 5.8% Total: 4.9% Fuera del hogar: Masculino: 3.4% Femenino: 3.3% Total: 3,3% En el hogar: Masculino: 4.0% Femenino: 5.8% Total: 4.9% Fuera del hogar: Masculino: 3.4% Femenino: 3.3% Total: 3,3% Exposición por sexo en el hogar: Masculino: 35.1 % Femenino: 30.1 % Total:32.5 % Exposición por sexo fuera del hogar: Masculino: 57.3% Femenino: 53.4% Total: 55.3% WHO Region of the Americas
Peru Exposición en aeropuertos, hospitales, restaurantes, bares, instituciones públicas y escuelas secundarias Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Philippines 13-15 y/o: 38.3% of students were exposed to tobacco smoke at home and 72.5% of students saw anyone smoking within school premises. 15 y/o and above: 2.5% of adults who worked indoors (3.6 million) were exposed to tobacco smoke in encloseed areas at their workplace; 34.7% of adults (24 million) were exposed to tobacco smoke at home; 86.3% of adults (3.3 million) were exposed to tobacco smoke when visiting bars and nightclubs; and 37.6% of adults (2 million) were exposed to tobacco smoke when using public transportation. 13-15 y/o: More than two in five students live in homes where others smoke and close to three in five students are exposed around others outside the home; half the students have one or more parents who smoke and 95% of students have friends who smoke. 15 y/o and above: Among the 61 million adults, 39.6% are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, 36.9% are exposed at work, 55.3% are exposed in public transport, 33.9% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings and 7.6% in health facilities. 13-15: More than two in five students live in homes where others smoke and close to three in five students are exposed around others outside the home; half the students have one or more parents who smoke and 9.5% of students have friends who smoke. 15 y/o and above: Among 61.3 million adults 39.6% exposed at home 36.9% at work 55.3% in public transport 33.6% in restaurants 25.5% in government buildings and 7.6% in health care facilities. WHO Western Pacific Region
Poland ADULTS: exposed at home: 40%, workplace: 8%, bars and pubs: 12%, coffeehouses: 6%, restaurants: 7%, discos/clubs: 9%, shopping centres: 5%, sports facilities: 6%, recreational facilities: 6%, playgrounds: 5%, public parks and oublic beaches: 17%, cultural facilities: 2%, educational facilities: 3%, educational facilities - percentage of exposed minors (15-19years old): 12%, healthcare facilities: 2%, public offices and institutions: 3%, public transport facilities (including bus-stops): 23%, means of public transport: 4% ADULTS: exposed at home: 39%, at worksite: 11%, on public transport: 25% ADULTS - exposed at home: 45%; at worksite: smoking men - 11% smoking women - 5% non-smoking men – 8% non-smoking women – 6%; public transport: smoking men – 19% smoking women – 20% non-smoking men – 19% non-smoking women – 10%; 13-15 YEARS OLD CHILDREN - exposed at home: 53% exposed in public places - 71% WHO European Region
Portugal Population aged 15 years or more - Daily time of exposure to tobacco smoke (% of exposed). 1hr ou more: Less than 1 hr : Never or occasionally: Man: 5.9 % Man: 3.9 % Man: 90.1% Women: 4,0% Women: 3.5 % Women: 92.5% Total: 4.9 % Total: 3.7 % Total: 91.3% Population aged 15 years or more - Daily time of exposure to tobacco smoke (% of exposed). 1hr ou more: Less than 1 hr : Never or occasionally: Man: 5.9 % Man: 3.9 % Man: 90.1% Women: 4,0% Women: 3.5 % Women: 92.5% Total: 4.9 % Total: 3.7 % Total: 91.4% Exposure at ETS at Workplace = 8% of active population WHO European Region
Qatar Overall, 12.0% of adults (8.3% of Qatari, 13.8% and of non-Qatari) who worked indoors were exposed to tobacco smoke, 16.8% (16.7% of Qatari and 16.9% of non-Qatari) were exposed at their homes, and 25.9% (29.2% of Qatari and 24.1% of non-Qatari) were exposed in restaurants. GATS 2013 results showed: - showed that 8.3% of Qatari and 13.8% of Non-Qatari who worked indoors were exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace. 16.7% of Qatari nationals and 16.9% of Non-Qatari nationals were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is clearly seen that there is a gender difference in the place of exposure, as women tend to be exposed at home more than men especially if they are not smokers (17.3% vs. 9.3% among Qatari & 14.2% vs. 8.3% among Non Qatari). -Despite the presence of a tobacco law that bans smoking in public places in Qatar, 29.2% of Qatari and 24.1% of non-Qatari were exposed to tobacco smoke in restaurants. There is no difference based on nationality or gender. Exposure in government building is lower than other public places, since this law is more strictly enforced. Overall, 12.0% of adults (8.3% of Qatari, 13.8% and of non-Qatari) who worked indoors were exposed to tobacco smoke, 16.8% (16.7% of Qatari and 16.9% of non-Qatari) were exposed at their homes, and 25.9% (29.2% of Qatari and 24.1% of non-Qatari) were exposed in restaurants. GATS 2013 results showed: - showed that 8.3% of Qatari and 13.8% of Non-Qatari who worked indoors were exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace. 16.7% of Qatari nationals and 16.9% of Non-Qatari nationals were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is clearly seen that there is a gender difference in the place of exposure, as women tend to be exposed at home more than men especially if they are not smokers (17.3% vs. 9.3% among Qatari & 14.2% vs. 8.3% among Non Qatari). -Despite the presence of a tobacco law that bans smoking in public places in Qatar, 29.2% of Qatari and 24.1% of non-Qatari were exposed to tobacco smoke in restaurants. There is no difference based on nationality or gender. Exposure in government building is lower than other public places, since this law is more strictly enforced. Home - the workplace - and public transport WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Republic of Korea 1. Adults (19 years old and over): Rates of exposure to tobacco smoke among adults were 17.8 % (male 24.0%, female 12.2%) in the workplace, 6.1% (male 3.4%, female 7.8%) at home, and 21.1%(male 26.6%, female 17.5%) in indoor public places. *These data show the rates of exposure to tobacco smoke among current non-smokers in the indoor workplace, at home, and indoor public places 2. Rates of exposure to tobacco smoke among adolescents were 27.9%. (male 27.3%, female 28.4%) at home. *In accordance with the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey 2015, rates of exposure to tobacco smoke among adolescents means adolescents who have been exposed to tobacco smoke from other family members or guests’ smoking at home within 7 days. 1. Adults (19 years old and over): Rates of exposure to tobacco smoke among adults are 40.7 % (male 49.9%, female 33.2%) in the workplace, and are 10.3% (male 4.6%, female 13.7%) at home. *These data show the rates of exposure to tobacco smoke for current non-smokers in the indoor workplace or home. 2. Rates of exposure to tobacco smoke (second-hand smoking) among adolescents are 29.0% (male 28.3%, female 29.7%). *In accordance with the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey 2015, rates of second-hand smoking mean adolescents who have been exposed to tobacco smoke from other family members or guests’ smoking at home within 7 days. 1. Adults (19 years old and over): adults'' tobacco smoke exposure rate is 45.3 (male 52.9% female 38.7%) in the workplace and is 11.3% (male 4.5% female 15.4%) at home. *These data show the current non-smoker adults'' smoking exposure rate in the workplace or at home indoors. 2. Adolescents: minors'' tobacco smoke exposure (second-hand smoke) rate is 30.7% (male 29.5% female 32.0%) *In accordance with the Youth Health Behaviour Online Survey 2013 it defines the second-hand smoking as that adolescents have been exposed to other family members or guests'' smoking at home within 7 days WHO Western Pacific Region
Republic of Moldova One in six individuals (16.5%) were exposed to second-hand smoke at home - 17,3% among men and 15,7 among women, also 26.7 % of students were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. One in four in the workplace (26.2%), with more men (35.0%) exposed than women (17.2%), which considerably increases the risk of NCDs among exposed individuals. One in six individuals (16.5%) were exposed to second-hand smoke at home - 17,3% among men and 15,7 among women, also 26.7 % of students were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. One in four in the workplace (26.2%), with more men (35.0%) exposed than women (17.2%), which considerably increases the risk of NCDs among exposed individuals. Answer not provided WHO European Region
Romania Report not provided Report not provided Exposed to tobacco smoke at home: 35.4% Exposed to tobacco smoke at work: 34.2% Exposed to tobacco smoke in public places: Government buildings: 20.7%; Health care facilities: 10.4%; Schools: 25.1%; Public transportation: 8.9%; Restaurants: 86.6%; Bars: 94.4% WHO European Region
Russian Federation Report not provided Answer not provided According to the study ''Global Adult Tobacco Survey'' (GATS) in Russia 60.2% 21.7% of men and women are smokers representing almost 40% of the population (43.9 million adults) and the highest smoking prevalence in countries where the study was conducted (total 14 States including the Russian Federation). About 80% of the population of the Russian Federation is subject to daily passive smoking (35% is exposed to second-hand smoke at work 90.5% in bars and 78.6 per cent in restaurants). WHO European Region
Rwanda Passive smoking (or second hand exposure to tobacco smoke) was not common (~10-15% of participants exposed either at home or at work), it was higher in homes for the youngest age groups suggesting that smoking at home may be increasing over time. Report not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Saint Kitts and Nevis Report not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Saint Lucia 26.8% of students indicate that they were exposed to tobacco smoke at home, 28.8% of boys and 25.5% of girls. While 42.&% of students were exposed to tobacco smoke inside enclosed public places, 42.5% of boys and 42.9% of girls. 20.9% of students were exposed to tobacco smoke in outdoor public places, 49.9% of boys and 50.4% of girls. (GYTS Saint Lucia, 2017) 16.9% of adults indicated exposure to tobacco smoke at home one or more days per week, 20.3% of adult males and 13.7% of adult females. While 18.3% of adults indicated exposure to tobacco smoke at the workplace on one or more days per week, 23.6% of adult males and 13% of adult females. (Saint Lucia STEPS, 2012) Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Report not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Samoa Answer not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
San Marino Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO European Region
Sao Tome and Principe Answer not provided Report not provided Answer not provided WHO African Region
Saudi Arabia يتعر ض 17.2 % من ال سعوديين لدخان التبغ الصادر من مدخن في المنزل , بمتوسط تعرض 5.1 أيام في الاسبوع يتعرض الذكور لدخان الغير بنسبة 20.9 % , بمتوسط 4.8 أيام في الأسبوع . وتتعرض الإناث بنسبة 13.1 % بمتوسط تعرض 5.5 ايام في الأسبوع ويتعرض 14.8 % من السعوديين للدخان الصادر من مدخن أثناء العمل , بمتوسط 2.2 أيام في الأسبوع .يتعرض الذكور لدخان الغير في العمل بنسبة 24.9 % ,بمتوسط تعرض 4.3 أيام في الأسبوع وتتعرض الإناث بن سبة 2.6 % ,بمتوسط تعرض قدرة 1.4 أيام في الأسبوع . Answer not provided 29.5% live in homes where others smoke in their presence. 37.5% are exposed to the smoke of others outside their homes. 76.5% support a ban on smoking in public places. 63.8% knew the harmful effects of tobacco on them. 21.1% one or both parents smoked. 6.3% most or all their friends are smokers. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Senegal - 30,4% des adultes travaillant à l’intérieur (0,46 million) ont été exposés à la fumée du tabac au travail ; - 21,6% des adultes (1,64 million) ont été exposés à la fumée du tabac à la maison ; - 28,8% d’adultes ayant fréquenté des restaurants (2,25 millions) ; - 79,3% des adultes ayant fréquenté des bars ou boites de nuit (6,21 millions); - 14,3% des adultes ayant fréquenté les transports publics (1,12 million) ont été exposés à la fumée du tabac. Batiments administratifs : 24.2%; etablissement de santé : 10.2%; restaurants : 28.8%; transports publics : 14.3%; universités : 57%; etablissement scolaires : 20.7%. Answer not provided WHO African Region
Serbia Survey of effects and attitudes related to the Law of Protection of the Citizens from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke is based on the representative sample of population of adults older than 18 years of age and performed in December 2016 (published in 2017). The exposure to SHS is as follows: - at work 34% of working population - in school/university - 6% - in restaurants/cafes/bars - 73% - in other houses of friends/relatives - 76% Data on the representative sample of population of adults older than 18 years of age performed in the survey in December 2014 revealed the following exposure to SHS: - at work 29% of working population - in school/university - 7% - in restaurants/cafes/bars - 64% - in other houses of friends/relatives - 79% Data for exposure to tobacco smoke among adult population are not available as the preliminary results of the National Health Survey in Serbia have not been released yet. GYTS in 2013 revealed that there is a reduction in exposure to SHS among youth: exposed to SHS at home are 63.4% of youth 61.5% boys and 65.4% girls. This is significant reduction since 2008 when 76.9% of youth 73.4% boys and 80.0% girls and particularly since 2003 when 96.4% of youth 95.0% boys and 98.0% girls were exposed to SHS. However even this reduced exposure to SHS is very high. The same study revealed that 60.9% of youth are exposed to SHS in enclosed public places 53.4% boys and 68.1% girls. Although lower than in 2008 (total 71.9% boys 68.1% and girls 74.8%) it is high and is a consequence of the fact that according to the Law on Protection of the Citizen from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (2010) there is no a total ban on smoking in the hospitality sector. WHO European Region
Seychelles Exposed to smoke in any enclosed public places: Boys (13-15 years): 38.8% Girls (13-15 years): 43.2% Exposure to tobacco smoke at home: Boys (13-15 years): 28.5% Girls (13-15 years): 32.5% Exposure at home by adults: reported by 15.1% men, reported by 23.3 % women with question “during the pat 7 days, did anyone smoke in your home when you were present”, age 25-64 Exposed to smoke in any enclosed public places: Boys (13-15 years): 38.8% Girls (13-15 years): 43.2% Exposure to tobacco smoke at home: Boys (13-15 years): 28.5% Girls (13-15 years): 32.5% Exposure at home by adults: reported by 15.1% men, reported by 23.3 % women with question “during the pat 7 days, did anyone smoke in your home when you were present”, age 25-64 Exposed to smoke in public places: Boys (13-15 years): 54.3% Girls (13-15 years): 60.6% Exposure at home: reported by 15.1% men reported by 23.3 % women with question “during the pat 7 days did anyone smoke in your home when you were present” age 25-64 WHO African Region
Sierra Leone Exposure to tobacco at the workplace men (76.1), women (82.5), both sexes (68.9) Exposure o tobacco at home men (76.9), women (70.8), both sexes (73.6) Exposure to tobacco at the workplace men (76.1), women (82.5), both sexes (68.9) Exposure o tobacco at home men (76.9), women (70.8), both sexes (73.6) Exposure to tobacco smoke in the home by gender: Male- 76.9%; Female- 70.8%; Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace by gender: Male: 76.1%; Female: 62.5%. WHO African Region
Singapore Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO Western Pacific Region
Slovakia TOHES Survey - second hand smoke at home GYTS Survey - second hand smoke at home TOHES Survey - second hand smoke at home GYTS Survey - second hand smoke at home Passive smoking exposure in young people in 13 - 15 year old in household there is exposed 45 2 % of young people (Male 43 8 % Female 45 7 %) and out of household is exposed approximately 72 3 % (Male 70 5 % Female 74 1 %). WHO European Region
Slovenia Results show that 19.7% of adults, aged 15 or more, were exposed to secondhand smoke at home on at least monthly basis, with men having significantly higher percentage compared to women (21.0% vs. 18.4%). Among non-smokers 11.7% of all were exposed to secondhand smoke at home on at least monthly basis (11.3% of non-smoking men and 12.1% of non-smoking women). Overall, 9.1% of target population and 7.5% of non-smokers were exposed to tobacco in indoor work areas in the past 30 days. Regarding gender, there was significantly higher percentage of male workers who were exposed to secondhand smoke than female workers both among all adults (11.8% vs. 6.3%) and among non-smokers (9.7% vs. 5.3%). Results show that 19.7% of adults, aged 15 or more, were exposed to secondhand smoke at home on at least monthly basis, with men having significantly higher percentage compared to women (21.0% vs. 18.4%). Among non-smokers 11.7% of all were exposed to secondhand smoke at home on at least monthly basis (11.3% of non-smoking men and 12.1% of non-smoking women). Overall, 9.1% of target population and 7.5% of non-smokers were exposed to tobacco in indoor work areas in the past 30 days. Regarding gender, there was significantly higher percentage of male workers who were exposed to secondhand smoke than female workers both among all adults (11.8% vs. 6.3%) and among non-smokers (9.7% vs. 5.3%). 80% of 15+ population was never exposed at home 81 8% was never exposed in public places and public transport. 7 6% of population 15+ was exposed in their workplace. This data refer to the time cca 3 months after the introduction of ban on smoking in all enclosed public and working places in August 2007. WHO European Region
Solomon Islands We can give the data for the overall exposure and this is 79.9% however since we do not have the raw data from this particular GYTS (2008) the requested breakdown cannot be given. Report not provided We can give the data for the overall exposure and this is 79.9% however since we do not have the raw data from this particular GYTS (2008) the requested breakdown cannot be given. WHO Western Pacific Region
South Africa GYTS 2011 data on last 7 days exposure to second hand smoke in the home and other places Data on high school learners who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and parental smoking Data on high school learners who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and parental smoking. WHO African Region
Spain EXPOSICIÓN AL HUMO DE TABACO EN LUGARES CERRADOS Distribución porcentual según sexo y grupo de edad (Población de 15 y más años) TABLAS COMPLETAS EN DOCUMENTACIÓN ADJUNTA A diferencia de los datos aportados en periodos anteriores, la EESE2014 sólo recoge una pregunta sobre exposición al humo: ¿Con qué frecuencia está expuesto/a al humo del tabaco en lugares cerrados? referida a la exposición al humo del tabaco en casa, en el trabajo, lugares públicos, restaurantes... Esto dificulta la comparación directa con los datos de las encuestas anteriores. Por otro lado, la EESE 2014 sólo incluye población de 15 y más años, por lo que no podemos disponer de información sobre la exposición en menores de esta edad. Comparando con los datos previos (Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España 2011), en 2014 se observa cierta disminución de la exposición. Así, la exposición al humo en sitios cerrados habría pasado del 10,8% en 2011 al 8,1% en 2014. Esta reducción se observa en ambos sexos. Se debe tener en cuenta que la recogida de esta variable ha cambiado y podrían no ser completamente equivalentes. La reducción más destacada en la exposición al humo de tabaco se dio tras el cambio legislativo introducido en 2011, especialmente en los espacios y transportes públicos cerrados y el lugar de trabajo, áreas reguladas por la ley. EXPOSICIÓN AL HUMO DE TABACO EN LUGARES CERRADOS Distribución porcentual según sexo y grupo de edad (Población de 15 y más años) TABLAS COMPLETAS EN DOCUMENTACIÓN ADJUNTA A diferencia de los datos aportados en periodos anteriores, la EESE2014 sólo recoge una pregunta sobre exposición al humo: ¿Con qué frecuencia está expuesto/a al humo del tabaco en lugares cerrados? referida a la exposición al humo del tabaco en casa, en el trabajo, lugares públicos, restaurantes... Esto dificulta la comparación directa con los datos de las encuestas anteriores. Por otro lado, la EESE 2014 sólo incluye población de 15 y más años, por lo que no podemos disponer de información sobre la exposición en menores de esta edad. Comparando con los datos previos (Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España 2011), en 2014 se observa cierta disminución de la exposición. Así, la exposición al humo en sitios cerrados habría pasado del 10,8% en 2011 al 8,1% en 2014. Esta reducción se observa en ambos sexos. Se debe tener en cuenta que la recogida de esta variable ha cambiado y podrían no ser completamente equivalentes. La reducción más destacada en la exposición al humo de tabaco se dio tras el cambio legislativo introducido en 2011, especialmente en los espacios y transportes públicos cerrados y el lugar de trabajo, áreas reguladas por la ley. Tabla 1. Exposición al humo de tabaco en casa. Distribución porcentual según sexo y grupo de edad. Población de 0 y más años. ENSE2011/12   NUNCA O CASI NUNCA MENOS DE UNA HORA AL DÍA ENTRE 1 Y 5 HORAS AL DÍA MÁS DE 5 HORAS AL DÍA  AMBOS SEXOS         TOTAL 82.2 6.8 8.2 2.9  0-4 años 93.2 4.0 2.2 0.6  5-14 años 86.2 8.2 4.8 0.8  15-24 años 73.5 10.3 12.1 4.1  25-34 años 77.0 8.2 11.3 3.5  35-44 años 82.3 6.5 8.5 2.7  45-54 años 76.4 7.4 11.9 4.3  55-64 años 80.6 6.5 8.7 4.2  65-74 años 89.0 4.5 4.7 1.8  75-84 años 93.7 2.5 2.4 1.5  85 y más años 94.9 3.1 1.1 0.8  HOMBRES           TOTAL 82.0 6.8 8.3 2.9  0-4 años 93.3 3.4 2.6 0.7  5-14 años 86.6 8.0 4.7 0.6  15-24 años 72.4 10.7 11.2 5.6  25-34 años 75.5 8.7 12.5 3.2  35-44 años 83.1 6.3 8.2 2.4  45-54 años 77.5 7.0 10.9 4.6  55-64 años 81.1 5.8 9.0 4.1  65-74 años 88.9 4.3 5.3 1.6  75-84 años 93.5 2.8 2.7 1.0  85 y más años 93.5 4.5 1.3 0.7  MUJERES           TOTAL 82.4 6.8 8.1 2.8  0-4 años 93.1 4.5 1.9 0.5  5-14 años 85.8 8.4 4.8 1.1  15-24 años 74.6 9.9 13.0 2.6  25-34 años 78.6 7.6 10.0 3.8  35-44 años 81.4 6.8 8.8 3.0  45-54 años 75.4 7.7 12.9 4.0  55-64 años 80.1 7.1 8.5 4.4  65-74 años 89.2 4.6 4.2 2.0  75-84 años 93.8 2.2 2.2 1.8  85 y más años 95.7 2.4 1.0 0.9   Tabla 2. Exposición al humo de tabaco en lugares y transportes públicos cerrados. Distribución porcentual según sexo y grupo de edad. Población de 0 y más años. ENSE2011/12   NUNCA O CASI NUNCA MENOS DE UNA HORA AL DÍA UNA HORA O MÁS AL DÍA  AMBOS SEXOS       TOTAL 97.6 1.5 0.9  0-4 años 99.5 0.3 0.1  5-14 años 99.1 0.7 0.2  15-24 años 96.2 2.3 1.5  25-34 años 97.0 1.8 1.1  35-44 años 97.0 2.1 1.0  45-54 años 96.9 1.6 1.5  55-64 años 97.6 1.7 0.8  65-74 años 98.1 1.2 0.7  75-84 años 99.3 0.6 0.1  85 y más años 99.6 0.2 0.2  HOMBRES         TOTAL 97.4 1.8 0.8  0-4 años 99.5 0.3 0.3  5-14 años 98.8 0.9 0.3  15-24 años 95.7 3.1 1.3  25-34 años 97.4 1.9 0.8  35-44 años 96.9 2.3 0.8  45-54 años 96.2 2.1 1.7  55-64 años 97.5 1.8 0.7  65-74 años 97.4 1.8 0.8  75-84 años 99.2 0.6 0.2  85 y más años 100.0 0.0 0.0  MUJERES         TOTAL 97.9 1.2 0.9  0-4 años 99.6 0.4 0.0  5-14 años 99.4 0.5 0.2  15-24 años 96.8 1.5 1.6  25-34 años 96.7 1.8 1.5  35-44 años 97.1 1.8 1.1  45-54 años 97.6 1.1 1.3  55-64 años 97.7 1.5 0.8  65-74 años 98.7 0.8 0.6  75-84 años 99.4 0.6 0.0  85 y más años 99.4 0.3 0.3   Tabla 3. Exposición al humo de tabaco en las áreas cerradas del lugar de trabajo. Distribución porcentual según sexo y grupo de edad. Población de 15 y más años que trabaja actualmente. ENSE2011/12.   NUNCA O CASI NUNCA MENOS WHO European Region
Sri Lanka Exposed to tobacco smoke at home, in enclosed public places and outdoor public places (secondhand smoking in the past 7 days) Please refer the GYTS report Sri Lanka 2015 - Exposure in the past seven days at their homes and public places. Report not provided WHO South-East Asia Region
Sudan Answer not provided Report not provided Report not provided WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Suriname GYTS 2016, among children from 13-15 years showed: -33.5% of boys and 36.5% of girls were exposed to tobacco smoke at home. -41.0% of boys and 44.0% of girls were exposed to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place -36.6% of boys and 37.1% of girls were exposed to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place -Among Students who saw anyone smoking inside the school building or outside on school property were 47.1% boys and 38.5% girls (1) GSHS 2009, among children aged 13-15 years showed: - 47 % lived in homes where others smoked, - 53% were exposed to others smoking outside of the home and - 49% had at least one parent who smoked (2) Air Quality Monitoring Study conducted in 2011 in Suriname revealed • Smoking was observed in 16 (55%) locations: 9 (90%) bars, 2 (29%) restaurants, 2 (22%) fast-food and 3 (100%) clubs (primarily casinos); which recorded an average fine particle air pollution PM2.5 level of 257µg/m3. • Air pollution was 29 times higher in locations where smoking was observed than in locations where no smoking was observed • According to the EPA Air Quality Index, a PM2.5 reading of 257mg/m3 , as recorded in places where indoor smoking was observed, is ‘hazardous’ and as such extremely harmful to health. • The calculated annual average occupational exposure of employees due to their occupational exposure to tobacco smoke pollution is 59 mg/m3, which is 4 times higher than annual levels established by the US Environmental protection Agency. (1) GSHS 2009 among children aged 13-15 years showed: - 47 % lived in homes where others smoked - 53% were exposed to others smoking outside of the home and - 49% had at least one parent who smoked (2) Air Quality Monitoring Study conducted in 2011 in Suriname revealed • Smoking was observed in 16 (55%) locations: 9 (90%) bars 2 (29%) restaurants 2 (22%) fast-food and 3 (100%) clubs (primarily casinos); which recorded an average fine particle air pollution PM2.5 level of 257µg/m3. • Air pollution was 29 times higher in locations where smoking was observed than in locations where no smoking was observed • According to the EPA Air Quality Index a PM2.5 reading of 257mg/m3 as recorded in places where indoor smoking was observed is ''hazardous'' and as such extremely harmful to health. • The calculated annual average occupational exposure of employees due to their occupational exposure to tobacco smoke pollution is 59 mg/m3 which is 4 times higher than annual levels established by the US Environmental protection Agency. WHO Region of the Americas
Swaziland Report not provided Answer not provided Report not provided WHO African Region
Sweden Exposure by gender and indoor exposures (at home, in the workplace, in public places, e.g. restaurants/café and other). Exposure by gender and for exposure in the home, workplace, public place (Indoors), other and total. Please note that the data submitted (see reference below) relates to 2013 and that it is NOT age-standardised (in contrast to the previous report). Historical figures computed without age-standardisation are available in the attachment specified below. The figures submitted relate to exposure to passive smoking 1) in general. 2) in public environments. 3) in home environments. 4) in work environments and 5) in other environments. In the attached file columns named ''No of responses'' correspond to the number of responses after applying calibration weights Figures are presented; by age-group. highest educational attainment. occupation. socio-economic status and origin. WHO European Region
Syrian Arab Republic ٦٠.١ ٪ من الطلاب يعيشون في منازل حيث يدخن الآخرون بوجودهم ٥٨.٤ ٪ من الطلاب هم حول الآخرين الذين يدخنون في الأماكن العامة خارج منازلهم Answer not provided Report not provided WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Tajikistan Report not provided Report not provided Answer not provided WHO European Region
Thailand Results of the 2014 NSO shows that 40.0% of adults aged 15 years and above are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, 24.3% of adults aged 15 years and above are exposed to tobacco smoke at transportation service. Moreover, the survey reveals that markets are the most common sites for the highest exposure to tobacco smoke at 66.0%. Results of the 2014 NSO shows that 40.0% of adults aged 15 years and above are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, 24.3% of adults aged 15 years and above are exposed to tobacco smoke at transportation service. Moreover, the survey reveals that markets are the most common sites for the highest exposure to tobacco smoke at 66.0%. Results of the 2011 GATS shows that 36.0% of adults aged 15 years and above are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. 30.5% of workers are exposed to tobacco smoke at the indoor workplace. Moreover. the survey reveals that markets are the most common sites for the highest exposure to tobacco smoke at 68.8%. WHO South-East Asia Region
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia At home Total 46,2 Male 43,0 Female 49,7 At public Places Total 49,8 Male 46,4 Feamale 53,5 Answer not provided The exposure to tobacco smoke among children aged between 13-15 is less in 2008 than in 2002. (2008-58.8%; 2002-65 9%); The exposure to tobacco smoke at home (2008-67 5%; 2002-91 9%); The exposure to tobacco smoke at public places (2008-66 0%;2002-80 2%); WHO European Region
Timor-Leste Exposed at home: Total 92.1%; men 94.6% and women 87.4%. In the workplace: Total 51.0%; men 74.4% and women 38.9%. Report not provided Report not provided WHO South-East Asia Region
Togo Exposition à domicile : homme 49,90 %, Femme, 27, 4%et homme et femme 33,9 % Exposition au travail : homme 22,5% ; femme 17,4 % homme et femme 19,9 ¨% NB : tranche dâge : 15 - 64 ans (2010) Exposition à domicile : garçons : 22.40 %, filles : 16.80 %et garçons et filles : 20.10 % Exposition dans les autres lieux publics fermés : garçons : 28.90 %, filles : 21.60 %et garçons et filles : 25.90 % Exposition dans les autres lieux publics ouvert : garçons : 28.80 %, filles : 23.40 %et garçons et filles : 26.60 % Exposition dans les écoles : garçons : 13.3 %, filles : 11.70 %et garçons et filles : 12.70 % NB : tranche dâge : 13 - 15 ans (2013) Exposition à domicile : homme 49,90 %, Femme, 27, 4%et homme et femme 33,9 % Exposition au travail : homme 22,5% ; femme 17,4 % homme et femme 19,9 ¨% NB : tranche dâge : 15 - 64 ans (2010) Exposition à domicile : garçons : 22.40 %, filles : 16.80 %et garçons et filles : 20.10 % Exposition dans les autres lieux publics fermés : garçons : 28.90 %, filles : 21.60 %et garçons et filles : 25.90 % Exposition dans les autres lieux publics ouvert : garçons : 28.80 %, filles : 23.40 %et garçons et filles : 26.60 % Exposition dans les écoles : garçons : 13.3 %, filles : 11.70 %et garçons et filles : 12.70 % NB : tranche dâge : 13 - 15 ans (2013) Exposition à domicile : homme 49 90 % Femme 27 4%et homme et femme 33 9 % Exposition au travail : homme 22 5% ; femme 17 4 % homme et femme 19 9 ¨% NB : tranche dâge : 15 - 64 ans WHO African Region
Tonga Prevalence of Exposure in children by age group and gender (Tonga GSHS 2017) Age-group Gender M F Total 13-15yrs 54.1 48.1 51.1 16-17yrs 64.0 53.4 58.7 13-17yrs 57.0 49.8 53.5 Exposure by gender in workplaces already reported in the last report 2016 (Tonga STEPS Survey Report 2014) Exposure by gender in the workplace on 1 or more days of the past 7 days (%) Age group (yrs) Men Female Both Sexes ___________________________________________________ 25-44 39.3 26.9 33.0 45-64 35.1 26.2 30.4 ___________________________________________________ 25-65 38.0 26.7 32.2 Exposure by both sexes at home and outside their home WHO Western Pacific Region
Trinidad and Tobago Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home on 1 or more of the past 7 days Men - 15.3% Women - 20.1% Total - 17.8% Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace on 1 or more of the past 7 days Men - 21.2% Women - 12.6% Total - 16.7% Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home on 1 or more of the past 7 days Men - 15.3% Women - 20.1% Total - 17.8% Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace on 1 or more of the past 7 days Men - 21.2% Women - 12.6% Total - 16.7% Home - 17.8%; Workplace - 16.7% WHO Region of the Americas
Tunisia  50,3% des élèves (13-15 ans) ont été exposés dans leur foyer à la fumée de la cigarette  2/3 d’entre eux (64% pour les garçons VS 59,2% pour les filles) ont été exposés dans d’autres lieux.  50% d’entre eux ont été exposés à la fumée des cigarettes de leurs camarades et/ou de leurs parents.  11,1% déclarent qu’ils ont été exposés à la fumée d’une autre personne fument la chicha à la maison.  50,3% des élèves (13-15 ans) ont été exposés dans leur foyer à la fumée de la cigarette  2/3 d’entre eux (64% pour les garçons VS 59,2% pour les filles) ont été exposés dans d’autres lieux.  50% d’entre eux ont été exposés à la fumée des cigarettes de leurs camarades et/ou de leurs parents.  11,1% déclarent qu’ils ont été exposés à la fumée d’une autre personne fument la chicha à la maison. 50.3% des élèves (13-15 ans) ont été exposés dans leur foyer à la fumée de la cigarette 2/3 d''entre eux (64% pour les garçons VS 59.2% pour les filles) ont été exposés dans d''autres lieux. 50% d''entre eux ont été exposés à la fumée des cigarettes de leurs camarades et/ou de leurs parents. 11.1% déclarent qu''ils ont été exposés à la fumée d''une autre personne fument la chicha à la maison. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Turkey Answer not provided Answer not provided Fewer non-smokers are being exposed to secondhand smoke at home and workplaces after implementation of the national smoke-free law in 2009. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was 15 6% whose 17 8% was male and 9 6% was female. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home was 38 3% while 39 2% was male and 37 4% was female. WHO European Region
Turkmenistan на рабочем месте, на дом Воздействие табачного дыма на дому и на рабочем месте Answer not provided WHO European Region
Tuvalu Report not provided Report not provided Percentage of students 13-15 years who reported people smoking in their presence on one or more days during the past 7 days 70.9% of males; 66.7% of females; 68.7% total WHO Western Pacific Region
Uganda Report not provided At home only. At home only WHO African Region
Ukraine Between 2010 and 2017, the overall SHS exposure in workplaces reduced by more than half (from 31.9% in 2010 to 14.3% in 2017). Similar changes were observed for non-smokers: SHS exposure at work decreased from 24.6% in 2010 to 10.5% in 2017. Between 2010 and 2017 exposure at home declined from 22.9% to 13.0% overall, and from 14.2% to 7.3% for non-smokers. The portion of respondents who reported somebody smoking on their workplace during the previous month decreased from 21% in 2013 to 15% in 2015. The percentage of respondents who witnessed smoking in state institutions decreased from 13.8% in 2013 to 9.7% in 2015 The portion of respondents who reported somebody smoking on their workplace during the previous month decreased from 34% in 2010 to 21% in 2013. Among the non-smokers the rates of second-hand smoke exposure decreased from 27% to 17%. In restaurants over the period of 2010–2013 the percentage of respondents who reported witnessing tobacco smoking has decreased from 64% to 28%. In 2013 27% reported that smoking was allowed in their homes whereas 31% answered in this way in 2010 and as many as 39% in 2005. WHO European Region
United Arab Emirates المنزل و الأماكن العامه المغلقه المنزل و الأماكن العامه المغلقه At home and in closed public places WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland In 2015, 28% of adults had self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke. The was highest among those aged 16-24, with over half of this age group reported at least some exposure. Exposure was most likely to occur in outdoor smoking areas of pubs/restaurants/cafes. More men than women reported exposure to other people’s smoke (31% and 26% respectively). Among non-smokers, 81% were not exposed to second hand (environmental) tobacco smoke, as measured by undetectable levels of saliva cotinine. This is an increase from 2013, when 75% had undetectable saliva cotinine levels. Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke was highest among those aged 16-24, over half of this age group reported at least some exposure. Exposure was most likely to occur in outdoor smoking areas of pubs/restaurants/cafes or at home (including other people’s homes). More men than women reported exposure to other people’s smoke (31% and 26% respectively). Overall the mean number of reported hours of exposure per week to second-hand smoke was 3.1 among men and 2.1 among women. Exposure for men has stayed the same since 2011 but for women has decreased from 2.8. Findings from the Health Survey for England (HSE) showed a marked fall in objective and self-reported measures of exposure to second-hand smoke following the introduction of smokefree laws in 2007. Cotinine levels less than 12ng/ml were used to measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Respondents to the Health Survey for England are classified as non-smokers if they reported not smoking and their cotinine level (measured through a saliva sample) was below 15ng/ml. Self-reported mean hours of exposure to smoke per week in non-smokers has slightly declined from 3.1 hours for men and 2.8 for women in 2010 to 2.7 for men and 2.5 for women in 2011. WHO European Region
United Republic of Tanzania Answer not provided Answer not provided Answer not provided WHO African Region
Uruguay Exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar en los últimos 7 días: 20.0% Exposición al humo de tabaco en el hogar en los últimos 7 días: 23.1% Exposición en el hogar (últimos 7 días): 29.2% Lugar de trabajo: 16.5% Transporte público: 3.3% Restaurantes: 1.5% Oficinas gubernamentales: 3.6% WHO Region of the Americas
Uzbekistan Report not provided Результаты проведенных исследований в 2013 г. и 2014 г. показали, что 21,0% (95% ДИ: 18,5-23,5) взрослого населения (18-64 лет) в течение последних 30 дней подвергалось воздействию вторичного табачного дыма дома, 15,6% 95% (ДИ: 13,2-18,0) - в закрытых пространствах на работе. According to the household survey . smokers tend to smoke outside the premises. However. 20% of households in the cold season . and 12 % - round they smoke or in the living rooms or kitchens and corridors. Data on the impact of tobacco smoke in public transport is not available. WHO European Region
Vanuatu Report not provided 59.3% live in homes where others smoke in their presence 75.9% are around others who smoke in places outside their home 38.2% have one or more parents who smoke 19.9% have most or all friends who smoke 59.3% in homes where others smoke in their presence; 75.9% around people who smoke in places outside home; 38.2% from parents who smoke; 19.9% from friends who smoke WHO Western Pacific Region
Venezuela Report not provided Report not provided Answer not provided WHO Region of the Americas
Viet Nam exposure at home, in the workplace, on public transport and public places exposure at home, in the workplace, on public transport and public places Exposure at home in the workplace on public transport and public places. WHO Western Pacific Region
Yemen OVERALL (%) BOYS (%) GIRLS (%) Exposure to tobacco smoke at home 40.5 41.7 38.0 Exposure to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place 55.5 63.3 43.0 Exposure to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place. 42.3 50.3 29.6 Students who saw anyone smoking inside the school building or outside on school property 46.5 52.9 36.0 OVERALL (%) BOYS (%) GIRLS (%) Exposure to tobacco smoke at home 40.5 41.7 38.0 Exposure to tobacco smoke inside any enclosed public place 55.5 63.3 43.0 Exposure to tobacco smoke at any outdoor public place. 42.3 50.3 29.6 Students who saw anyone smoking inside the school building or outside on school property 46.5 52.9 36.0 44.9% of young people age 13-15 years living in homes where there are smokers 42.7% smokers surrounded by people outside the home WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
Zambia 1. Homes-75% are smoke free, 7% allow smoking in some places and 19% have no restrictions 2. Public transportation vehicles-98% are smoke free, 1% allow smoking in some places and 1% have no restrictions 3. Restaurants-93% are smoke free, 5% allow smoking in some places and 1% have no restrictions 4. Indoors at workplaces-67% are smoke free, 6% allow smoking in some places and 28% have no restrictions 5. Bars-48% are smoke free, 19% allow smoking in some places and 3% have no restrictions 1. Homes-75% are smoke free, 7% allow smoking in some places and 19% have no restrictions 2. Public transportation vehicles-98% are smoke free, 1% allow smoking in some places and 1% have no restrictions 3. Restaurants-93% are smoke free, 5% allow smoking in some places and 1% have no restrictions 4. Indoors at workplaces-67% are smoke free, 6% allow smoking in some places and 28% have no restrictions 5. Bars-48% are smoke free, 19% allow smoking in some places and 3% have no restrictions Report not provided WHO African Region
Zimbabwe Details available for exposure to tobacco smoke at home are for boys 31.3% and girls 30.9% both aged between 13 - 15 years. Inside enclosed public place exposure, boys 46.2% and girls 50.2%. Outdoor public place, boys 47.3% and girls 51.6%. Exposure inside or outside school property, boys 32% and girls 33%. Details available for exposure to tobacco smoke at home are for boys 31.3% and girls 30.9% both aged between 13 - 15 years. Inside enclosed public place exposure, boys 46.2% and girls 50.2%. Outdoor public place, boys 47.3% and girls 51.6%. Exposure inside or outside school property, boys 32% and girls 33%. Report not provided WHO African Region
Party 2018 2016 2014 Region

Survey answers in 2018

  • 1: Answer not provided
  • 2: Report not provided
  • 3: Answer available


Survey answers in 2018

Answers evolution

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