Health effects

Smokeless tobacco causes diseases and death. A significant association between smokeless tobacco use and mortality due to all causes (OR, 1.22; 1.11-1.34), all cancer ( OR 1.31; 1.16-1.47), upper aero digestive cancer (OR, 2.17; 1.47-3.22), stomach cancer (OR ,1.33; 1.12-1.59), cervical cancer ( OR, 2.07; 1.64-2.61), IHD (OR 1.10; 1.04-1.17) and stroke (OR, 1.37; 1.24-1.51) was found at global level based on data from 133 countries. Globally, the number of attributable deaths from all-cause mortality was 652494 (234 008-1 081 437), of which 88% was borne by the South-East Asian region.

Source: Pubmed PMID: 27903956